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 You will keep notes about the course content in your Blackboard journal. To give flexibility regarding your interests, you can choose the course weeks you will add notes to the journal. You will be required to complete four journal entries . Only you and the instructor will have access to the journal.

Try to answer the following questions in each of your journal entries:

  • What interested you the most in the week’s course content? Why?
  • What about the concepts discussed this week? (use the syllabus, course schedule, to see each week’s concepts). Did they help you understand the historical process better, or not? How come? Comment on at least one concept and related event/process discussed in the textbook or lectures.
  • What event, concept, or historical process remained unclear to you? Why?
  • How do you evaluate your learning process about world history so far?

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700 WORDS

Crisis and Reform in the
Greater Mediterranean
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella ([email protected])

The Course so Far

 Course started with the Ottomans and the European Maritime
expansion.

 But then moved elsewhere.

 Americas.

 Africa.

 Asia.

 Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

 What about Europe and the Ottoman Empire?

Europe, 1500-1750

 Fragmentation and rivalries.

 Religious conflicts.

 Competing regional identities.

 New political, knowledge, and
social models.

Siege of Stralsund (1628), Thirty Year’s War.

The Ottoman Empire

 Expansion.

 Military and governance innovation.

 Incorporation.

Ottoman miniature about the Szigetvár
campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars as avant-
garde.

The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire

 Vast territory in the crossroads of Europe, Africa, and Asia.

 Multicultural Empire.

 Lasted 623 years (1299 – 1922).

 What explains Ottoman expansion, durability, and influence?

 Military power.

 Clever governance.

 Minimal trade restrictions.

 Relative religious tolerance.

The Ottoman
Military

 Professional standing
army.

 Janissary corps.

 Devshirme recruitment.

 Well trained.

 Well equipped.

 Highly loyal to the Sultan.

Land Grants and Religious Tolerance

 Timar.

 Land grants to the military personnel.

 Factor of stability in frontier zones.

 Deeply religious state (Muslim), but religiously tolerant.

 If compared to most Christian nations.

 No mass conversion.

 Still Muslims privileged.

Expansion

 Most significant expansion
between 1453 and 1683.

 Ottoman Navy dominated the
Mediterranean Sea until
1571.

 Defeat in the Siege of Vienna
in 1683 marks end of
expansion.

Society

 Most rural peasants and herders.

 Urban life thrived.

 Social hierarchy based on occupation.

 Social mobility possible.

 Through education.

 And military service.

The map of Istanbul (Constantinople) by Matrakçı
Nasuh during the 16th century

Society

 Life shaped by military campaigns and international trade.

 Strong merchant class.

 Trade with Africa, Asia, and Europe.

 Low trade taxes.

 State-maintained caravanserais.

 Patriarchal society.

 But women often engaged in export crafts.

Fractured Europe

The Protestant Reformation

 Martin Luther.

 1517 Critique of the Catholic Church.

 Corruption of the clergy.

 Purgatory and indulgences.

 Defended that people had direct access to holy scriptures and God.

 Lutheranism, Calvinism.

 Spread in central and northern Europe.

Catholic Response

 Convert people overseas.

 Reinforce the Church’s doctrines.

 Protestants labeled heretics.

 Resulting in the explosion of religious
conflict in Europe.

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572
France, painting by François Dubois.

Rivalries Beyond
Religion

 Spanish, French, English, Dutch.

 Competition for overseas colonies
and trade, that is, wealth.

 Religious divisions added.

 Spain started to decline in the late
sixteenth century.

 England and the Dutch rising.

Depiction of the 1588 Spanish Armada defeat, by
Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom, 1601.

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)

 Ferdinand II – Attempts to re-Catholicize parts of the Holy Roman Empire.

 Civil War within the Holy Roman Empire.

 Catholic vs. Protestant.

 Spain, France, the Dutch later involved.

 Unprecedented level of destruction.

 1/3 of the population of central Europe died.

 Agricultural production disrupted.

Crisis and New Models

Crises and New
Models

 Crises demand new models.

 Impacts of the maritime expansion.

Jacques Callot’s 1633 depiction of an
event in the Thirty Years’ War. France.

New Model of Knowledge

 Direct observation of nature.

 First, the cosmos.

 16, 17th centuries: Galilei, Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Newton.

 Mathematical Models.

 Philosophers.

 Deductive method.

 Inductive method.

 Scientific Revolution.

The Emergence of Capitalism

 Deep change in socio-economic relations.

 Commercial and Industrial stages.

 “an economic system in which private parties make their goods and services
available on an open market and seek to exploit market conditions to profit from
their activities.” (p. 708)

 Profit and market.

Capital, Land, and
Labor

 Wage labor.

 Changes in land tenure.
 Land enclosure.

 Rise of commercial agriculture in
seventeenth century Europe.
 Partially due to the Columbian

Exchange.

New Business Models and Capital
Accumulation

 East India Trade Companies.

 Banking and Insurance.

 Transatlantic slave trade.

 Profits reinvested.

 Slavery.

 Overexploitation of slave labor facilitated capital accumulation.

 Provision of raw materials.

 Therefore, maritime expansion key to the development of capitalism.

The State and
Capitalism

 The state was a key player in
the emergence of capitalism.

 Example of England.

 Mercantilism.

 Trade surplus.

 Benefit of the English state,
manufacturers, and
merchants.

A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of
mercantilism.

New Players

 Bourgeoisie.

 City citizens, not hereditary nobility.

 Emerging group: wealth from trade and
other capitalist activity.

 First in England and the Netherlands.

The 16th-century German banker Jakob Fugger and
his principal accountant, M. Schwarz, registering an
entry to a ledger. The background shows a file cabinet
indicating the European cities where the Fugger Bank
conducts business. (1517)

New Political Models

 Constitutionalism.

 First in England, late seventeenth century.

 Absolutism.

 France, mid-seventeenth century.

 Centralized states.

Absolutism

 One ruler with all power.

 Near absolutism in
sixteenth century Spain.

 But seventeenth century
France best example.

 Louis XIV.

 Military power.

 Court grandeur.

Palace of Versailles, 1668. Built for Louis XIV.

Constitutionalism

 Early modern constitutionalism: written charter defining a power-sharing
agreement between a monarch and a parliament.

 Certain subjects, certain rights.

 Which subjects? What rights?

 England.

 Tumultuous process between 1630s and 1680s.

Lecture Recap

 Ottomans.

 Military prowess and integrative policies.

 Challenged European kingdoms and empires.

 Europe.

 Religious fervor.

 Gunpowder.

 Wars.

 Seeds of change.

 Scientific Revolution.

 Capitalism.

 New political models.

  • Crisis and Reform in the Greater Mediterranean
  • The Course so Far
  • Europe, 1500-1750
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottoman Military
  • Land Grants and Religious Tolerance
  • Expansion
  • Society
  • Society
  • Fractured Europe
  • The Protestant Reformation
  • Catholic Response
  • Rivalries Beyond Religion
  • The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  • Crisis and New Models
  • Crises and New Models
  • New Model of Knowledge
  • The Emergence of Capitalism
  • Capital, Land, and Labor
  • New Business Models and Capital Accumulation
  • The State and Capitalism
  • New Players
  • New Political Models
  • Absolutism
  • Constitutionalism
  • Lecture Recap

The Colonial Order in the
Americas
History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella ([email protected])

Recap ~1492-1560

 Disastrous first contact in Hispaniola and other Caribbean Islands.

 Disease, violence, encomienda.

 Conquest of the Inca and Aztec Empires.

 Disease, timing and circumstances, Spanish tactics.

 Silver.

 Portuguese Brazil.

 Coastal colony.

The “Colonial Middle”

 ~1550-1750.

 Economic and political models established.

 Decreased military conflict.

 Native Americans dealing with the new
reality.

 Enslaved Africans forming communities
and resisting.

Plan of Lima, capital of the Spanish Vice-
Royalty of Peru, 1744.

This Lecture

 Case study: Spanish America.

 Colonial Government.

 Economy.

 Aspects of society.

 Slavery and sugar.

 Brazil, Caribbean.

 Resistance.

Spanish America: Colonial
Government

Colonial
Government

 Goals: wealth and allegiance.

 Europe to America: distance.

 Reliable but slow
communication.

 Impact how to govern.
Main Spanish and Portuguese Sea Routes.

Spanish Colonial
Government

 Council of the Indies.

 Spanish subjects with interests in Spain in
key positions in the colonial administration.

 Viceroyalty; Provinces.

 Audiencias: high appeal court.

 Town Councils (Cabildos): controlled by
Spanish settlers.

“Two Republics”

 Survival of native communities.
 Tribute and labor.

 The “Republic of Indians.”
 Indigenous self-government at village level.
 Indigenous town councils.

 The “Republic of Spaniards.”
 Everything else.

Spanish America: Economy
and Society

Two Republics and Stability

 Traditional native elites.
 Colonizers – Natives intermediation.

 Relatively negotiated imposition of colonial rule.

 Audiencias.
 Some relief to grievances.

The Colonial
Economy

 Almost self-sufficient early on.

 Ranching and farming developed
quickly.

 Favorable environment; workforce.

 Export-focused; monopolistic trade
through Seville.

 Primary activity: silver mining.

 Secondary export products: gold, cacao,
dyes, hides, and others.

Port of Seville, Spain. All trade from Spanish
America had to go through Seville.

Native Labor

 Rotational labor drafts.

 Communities forced to provide quotas of laborers for a certain amount of time.

 New Spain: repartimiento.

 Peru: mita.

 Similar to native pre-conquest labor drafts, but harsher.

 Facilitated by the “two republics” system.

Spanish America: Society,
Race, and Religion

Race and Social Hierarchy

 Race and Ethnicity in the organization of the colonies.

 Natives: tribute and servitude.

 Africans: slavery.

 Mixed-races.

 “castas.”

 Also inferior by law and discriminated in practice.

 But Complicated social hierarchization based on racial boundaries.

Calidad

 Racial boundaries blurred by casta population.

 Calidad (“quality”).

 Physical.

 Cultural.

 And social attributes.

 Position in society.

Casta painting containing
complete set of 16 casta
combinations. 18th

Century Mexico. Unknown
author.

Catholicism

 Provided some common
ground.

 Religious conformity expected.

 Catholicism blended with
indigenous and African
religious practices.

Coricancha (Inca’s Golden Temple) walls with the
Spanish Convent of Santo Domingo built on top of it.

Sugar and Slavery

Slavery: Where and Why?

 Slavery developed where…
 Compulsory native labor not advantageous to colonists.

 Diminished indigenous populations.

 Highly profitable activities to compensate for capital investment
(purchase and maintenance of slaves)

 More often in export agriculture.

 But also in urban settings.

Slavery in the Americas

 Mass slavery, forming slave societies.

 Mostly rural.

 Plantations.

 Some mining and ranching areas.

 Auxiliary slavery, forming societies with slaves.

 Urban centers.

 Service sector.

Sugar Plantations

 High demand in Europe for sugar.

 First in Hispaniola and Mexico.

 Thrived in Pernambuco and Bahia (Brazil), and later in the Caribbean.

 Transitioned from enslavement of natives to massive use of enslaved
Africans.

Plantations

 Specialized commercial enterprises.

 Large investment capital
required: machinery and slaves.

 Economic driving forces of Brazil and
the Caribbean.

 Dependent domestic economy.

 Specialization of the workforce.

 Harsh labor regime.

 Plantation owners and transatlantic
sugar merchants profited.

Early 19th century
representation of a Brazilian
sugar mill.

Gold and Slavery in
Brazil

 Gold and diamonds found in the interior.

 Shaped eighteenth-century Brazil.

 Interiorization.

 Slavery in the mining district.

 Gold collected by enslaved Africans in
colonial Brazil would help fund the
industrial revolution in England.

Meanwhile, in the Caribbean

 17th and 18th centuries.

 Dutch spread the sugar plantation model in the Caribbean after occupying
sugar producing areas of Portuguese Brazil (1630-1654)

 Indentured servitude replaced by large scale slavery.

 Harsher than in Brazil.

 Racial distinction and racist hierarchies strongly enforced in colonies controlled by
northern Europeans.

Violence

 Public punishment.

 Center of towns and cities.

 Show of power of Masters
and colonial authorities.

Public Punishment. Johann Moritz Rugendas. (c. 1820s.)

Resistance

Indigenous
Resistance

 Flight to the margins.

 Refusal and rebellion.
 Faced Spaniard

violence.

 Legal action.

Page of the Codex
Tepetlaoztoc, c. 1550.

Urban Slavery

 Services, workshops, construction, transportation.

 Regional capitals and port cities.

 Increased social tension.

 Public torture and execution.

Urban Blacks and
Freedom Strategies

 Some access to money.

 Self-Purchase.

 Still, uncertainty faced
freed individuals and
urban Black communities.

Jean-Baptiste Debret. Urban Slavery, early 19th
century Rio de Janeiro.

Black Lay Brotherhoods

 Support and solidarity networks.

 From the 18th century, common in urban centers and mining districts
(Brazil).

 Secured funds to purchase freedom.

 Additionally, sought to provide:

 Health assistance.

 Pay for decent burials.

 Legal advice.

Rural Slaves

 Self-purchase more difficult.

 Harsher labor regimes.

 Less access to monetized transactions.

 Formation of runaway communities.

 Main strategy towards freedom.

 Frequent in plantation zones.

 Quilombos in Portuguese America.

 Palenques in Spanish America.

 Maroon Communities.

Maroon
Communities

 Free Black communities.

 Formed by runaway slaves
since the beginning of
colonization.

 Frequent formation in
plantation zones.

 Threat to the established
colonial order.

Map of Pernambuco, Brazil, representing the maroon
community of Palmares. Frans Post, 1647.

Quilombo of Palmares

 Largest of the Americas.

 Formed during the Dutch invasion of Brazil
(1630-1654)

 Sugar-growing area.

 Confederation.

 10,000 to 20,000 people.

 Zumbi of Palmares (Leader)

 Defeated in 1694, after decades of fight
and negotiation.

Monument to Zumbi, leader of
the Parlmares maroon
Community. Downtown
Salvador, Brazil.

Native and African Resistance

 Rural zones: free maroon communities.

 Urban centers: self-purchase and lay brotherhoods.

 Indigenous Americans also resisted.

 Shaped colonial societies.

 Today: fight against the legacy of slavery, overexploitation, and
displacement.

  • The Colonial Order in the Americas
  • Recap ~1492-1560
  • The “Colonial Middle”
  • This Lecture
  • Spanish America: Colonial Government
  • Colonial Government
  • Spanish Colonial Government
  • “Two Republics”
  • Spanish America: Economy and Society
  • Two Republics and Stability
  • The Colonial Economy
  • Native Labor
  • Spanish America: Society, Race, and Religion
  • Race and Social Hierarchy
  • Calidad
  • Número do slide 16
  • Catholicism
  • Sugar and Slavery
  • Slavery: Where and Why?
  • Slavery in the Americas
  • Sugar Plantations
  • Plantations
  • Gold and Slavery in Brazil
  • Meanwhile, in the Caribbean
  • Violence
  • Resistance
  • Indigenous Resistance
  • Urban Slavery
  • Urban Blacks and Freedom Strategies
  • Black Lay Brotherhoods
  • Rural Slaves
  • Maroon Communities
  • Quilombo of Palmares
  • Native and African Resistance