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The study of history is guided by asking questions. Developing research questions is an iterative process, which means that the questions are continuously changing as new information is uncovered and new thoughts occur. In this activity, you will consider how historical perspectives and sources influence how research questions are written and revised.


Use the Module Three Activity Revising Questions Template Word Document to complete this activity. First, use your primary and secondary sources to help you choose a historical perspective (social, political, or economic) to apply to your topic. Then consider the evidence you have found in those sources and if that evidence supports your research questions or suggests you need to go in another direction. Finally, you will choose one research question to focus on and revise it. Revising may involve rewriting your research question completely. Or you may need to narrow your focus or improve the clarity of the question.

You initially wanted to research how Native American people and culture have been memorialized in the United States. After consulting sources, you realize that this question is too broad. So, you decide to narrow your question to the movement to change Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples’ Day. After further research, you decide to approach your topic from a cultural perspective rather than a political perspective. You choose this perspective because you are interested in how Indigenous Peoples’ Day might better preserve and recognize the many Native American cultures (the cultural perspective) rather than how governments have responded to this proposed change (the political perspective).

Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

  • Identify a historical perspective that could be applied to your historical event.
    • Ensure that you use evidence, such as examples or quotes, from your sources to support why you identified a particular perspective.
  • Revise your research question based on evidence from your primary and secondary sources.
    • Does the evidence from your primary and secondary sources support your research question, or do they indicate you need to reconsider it? For example, you may need to narrow your focus further or approach your topic from a different perspective. If you do not feel like your research question needs to be changed, explain why.
  • Explain how historical perspective and evidence from sources influenced your finalized research question.
    • How did they strengthen or challenge your research question?

Guidelines for Submission

Submit the Module Three Activity Template: Revising Questions. Sources should be cited according to APA style. While references are not required, any sources used should be cited according to APA style if you reference them in your responses. Consult the Shapiro Library APA Style Guide for more information on citations.

HIS 100 Module Two Activity Template: Primary and Secondary Sources

Replace the bracketed text below with your responses.

Non-graded portion

· List your historical research topic here: 

· The Tulsa race Massacre


Graded portion: 

Distinguish between primary and secondary sources.

Primary sources are often fast hand accounts of an event that were created by people at the time of the event or years later, they come from the individual’s personal histories, journals, and some memoirs. Some of these records can be found in media such as video and audio recordings and artwork, such media include newspaper articles, manuscripts, photographs, videos, and artifacts. Secondary sources on the other hand are often interpretations of primary sources they are mostly information that originate from a different place and are often generalized and analyzed interpretations and synthesis of primary sources of research information

Explain why it is important to consult a variety of sources when conducting historical research. Include specific details and examples.

In research, it is important to consult a variety of sources, this is because consulting other sources invites other people to either provide support or contrast an idea or a topic of discussion. This helps a historical researcher to clarify and expound on each aspect they are studying or analyzing. They also help in giving new insights and dimensions of a topic as one learns more about the issues relating to the topic being researched. Some issues that were important at the time of the subject being studied can still be the same issues that we are being challenged by today. By comparing and contrasting with others one’s explanations become clearer and thorough as the researcher’s perspective will be challenged and refined through other authors and sources. This can be seen in the Tulsa massacre as there were two conflicting stories to the event one of which was adamant that it was a riot while the other insisted that it was a massacre. If a modern researcher unfamiliar with the event were from either side they would be blinded by the perspectives of their side without accepting the other.

Identify one primary source that would help investigate your research question (include the title, author, and link to the source).

Many sources exist on the Tulsa race massacre of 1921 however for a primary source the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum offers a far wider range of research resources than any other. On their website (https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/), they have uploaded all the relevant documents that as newspaper clippings, death reports, letters, and other media sources tired to the event which paint a picture of the issues, facts, and intrigues that make up the story of the event.

Identify one secondary source that would help investigate your research question (include the title, author, and link to the source).

Through the works of Messer and Krehbiel in their works Causes of the Tulsa Race Massacre https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74679-7_3 and Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZX6mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=secondary+sources+of+the+tulsa+massacre&ots=a0XEBelGpo&sig=MKk-ecJuhJAqV-RT6yw4_YvUS4g

I found my secondary sources which may give me a different perspective of the study on the events of June 1st, 1921.

Choose a current event related to the subject of your historical research question and explain how they are connected.

We always say we should learn from the past but in matters of racism, the sentiment seems to have been entirely been forgotten. From the red summer of 1919 to the Tulsa race massacre the events left our societies riddled with injuries and losses however we seem to never learn. Just like the two events the current society has once again been rocked by the same racially violent racial riots caused by a single spark. Just like Eugen Williams and Dick Rowland, George Floyd has become the modern spark that ignited the fuse of systemic racism that has plagued modern society. His death just like the other two victims has caused massive violent riots and just like Tulsa earned a historic title the Racial Reckoning Summer of 2020. The Tulsa race massacre especially echoed in the 2020 murder of Floyd as the whites are the leading social figureheads, the police who made the situation worse. (Roberts, J. D. 2021). Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2021/06/09/pandemics-and-protests-america-has-experienced-racism-like-this-before/


Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, (n.d.), 1921 Tulsa race massacre. Tulsahistory.org. https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/

Messer, C. M. (2021). Causes of the Tulsa Race Massacre. In The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre (pp. 33-53). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74679-7_3

Krehbiel, R. (2019). Tulsa, 1921: Reporting a massacre. University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved from, https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZX6mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=secondary+sources+of+the+tulsa+massacre&ots=a0XEBelGpo&sig=MKk-ecJuhJAqV-RT6yw4_YvUS4g

Roberts, J. D. (2021). Pandemics and protests: America has experienced racism like this before. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2021/06/09/pandemics-and-protests-america-has-experienced-racism-like-this-before/