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The readings speak about trying to increase the supply of affordable housing for low-income families. From your perspective, how are we doing from both a supply and a demand perspective? Do we have enough housing (either rental and/or owner) for low-income families or is more needed? Also consider how COVID-19 has impacted housing. Explain your response and use evidence/examples from the readings and film to support your arguments. 

PADM 7224
1

MODULE

Seminar in Urban Problems

PADM 7224

University of Memphis
Department of Public &

Nonprofit Administration

Edwards & Imrie (2015)
Chapters 7 & 8

4

PADM 7224
2

CHAPTER 7: URBAN RENAISSANCE &
SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT

Edwards & Imrie (2015) The Short Guide to Urban Policy

PADM 7224
3

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban
Development

? Late 1980s led to a rediscovery of
interest in the city – both by academics
and political actors

? Example – Congress for New Urbanism
was established in 1993 with three key
goals
? To diversify neighborhoods
? To design for climate change
? To legalize walkable places

PADM 7224
4

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban
Development

? “Sustainable development” become the
dominant topic of discussion
? Reduce usage of cars
? Increase public transportation
? Improve bicycling and walking spaces
? Build “green”
? Reuse vacant sites (such as urban farms)
? Develop local energy source (such as rooftop solar)

? Critical question – is sustainable development
nothing more than traditional economic
development in disguise?

PADM 7224
5

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism

? Responding to the negative
consequences of urbanism through
urban planning in early 20th century:
? Ebenezer Howard (1902) – The Garden City
? Le Corbusier (1929) – Ville Contemporaine
? Frank Lloyd Wright (1932) – Broadacre City

? Common theme – improve cities to live
symbiotically with the ecological
environment

PADM 7224
6

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism

? Cities have typically suffered from political
economy of waste –
? “seeking to offload the costs of urban-industrial

processes into areas where resistance is weak
and protest is unlikely to be effective
[traditionally black, minority, and poor
communities]” (p. 182)

? Starting in mid-1960s – focus on
environmental negligence and increased
environmental awareness in general; but
didn’t really gain traction until late 1980s

PADM 7224
7

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism

? Examples of increased environmental awareness
in political action writings:
? Jane Jacob’s (1961) The Death and Life of Great

American Cities
? WCED’s Brundtland Report (1987) Our Common

Future
? Idea of eco-modernism developed during the

early 1980s – “the existing economic and social
system, capitalism, can be retained because the
environment can be combined in ways whereby
both can be enhanced” (p. 184)

PADM 7224
8

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism

? Social sustainability (in addition to
ecological sustainability) was
championed by the Congress for New
Urbanism
? Full charter covers 27 principles across “The

Region”, “The Neighborhood” and “The
Block”

? Summary on page 187

PADM 7224
9

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
Sustainable Development and Urban Policy Dimensions

? Wide range of policies have developed and
emerged under the “banner of
sustainability”; examples –
? Pricing mechanisms to modify consumption

habits
? Smart technology to monitor energy

consumption
? Compact urban development (curtail urban

sprawl)
? Social mixing in disadvantaged communities to

“fix” housing and employment failures (linked
to gentrification)

PADM 7224
10

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
Sustainable Development and Urban Policy Dimensions

? Closely related to (and sometimes included in)
the sustainable development policy umbrella is
the concept of Smart Cities – incorporating use
of data and technology in city infrastructure and
services to improve quality of life
? Smart Cities: A Cheat Sheet
? The future of urban development
? Saudi Arabia’s new smart city might be a glimpse of

the future
? How has COVID-19 impacted the “smart cities”

momentum?
? Why you’ll be hearing a lot less about ‘smart cities’

PADM 7224
11

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
Sustainable Urban Policy An Evaluation

? Difficult to measure the impact of sustainable
development initiative given the wide range of
policies

? Unanswered questions from critics:
? Is sustainable development still top-down, “growth-

first” urban renewal with dealings between local
officials and private business investors instead of
bottom-up, environment-first, locally led
development?

? Can ecological sustainability coincide with
economic growth?

? Moving forward – maintain goals of WCED’s
Brundtland Report, but implement with a range
of stakeholders

PADM 7224
12

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
Alternative Visions for Sustainable Cities

? 2008 global recession has increased focus
on economic growth at expense of social
and environmental concerns

? Alternative 1: organic regeneration
? Locally-led development that makes cities’

places more than commodities
? Dismantle single-developer projects

? Alternative 2: distributed economies
? Shorten the supply and production chain
? Grow and consume local (e.g., urban farming)

PADM 7224
13

Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:
Web Links

? Stockholm Environment Institute
? https://www.sei.org/

? United Nations Sustainable
Development
? https://sdgs.un.org/

PADM 7224
14

CHAPTER 8: URBAN RECOVERY &
THE FUTURE FOR CITIES

Edwards & Imrie (2015) The Short Guide to Urban Policy

PADM 7224
15

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities

? How has 2008 recession-related fiscal
cutbacks in spending on public programs
disproportionately impacts poor and
disadvantaged city dwellers?

? How has private investment increased in
public land acquisition?

? Post-welfare urban policy
? “Urban recovery after 2008 was defined in

self-help terms, including the American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which
provided estimated $190 billion to be invested
in cities” (p. 208)

PADM 7224
16

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
Global Recession and the State of Cities

? 2008 Great Recession had a dramatic
impact on economic stability of cities
worldwide
? Further increased the focus of city leaders on

economic development and growth
? Led to increase privatization of public services

and/or fee-based systems – cities needed
upfront cash at cost of long-term benefits

? Led to further municipal cuts in services –
example: 40% of Detroit’s street lighting was
turned off due to budget shortfalls

PADM 7224
17

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
Urban Policy & Politics of Austerity

? “Growth first” urban policy is seen by city
leaders as the only alternative

? Typically resulting in loosening of planning and
building regulations to encourage private
development

? IN THEORY these approaches create “trickle
down” economics that will improve local
economic fortunes (but not always in reality)

Note: Reminder that several parts of this book discuss United
Kingdom (UK) urban policy, great examples but be aware.
Discussion of the Coalition Government and NPFF (p.214-217) in
this section is UK policy and politics.

PADM 7224
18

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
Global Recession and the State of Cities

? Strong Cities, Strong Communities (SC)
initiative of President Obama (2011)
? “Seeks to strengthen neighborhoods, towns,

cities, and regions around the country by
enhancing the capacity of local governments
to develop and execute their economic vision
and strategies, providing necessary technical
assistance and access to federal agency
expertise, and creating new public and private
sector partnerships.”

? Urban Institute’s research report on SC –
includes Memphis, TN

PADM 7224
19

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
The Effects of Austerity (Urban) Policy

? Urban austerity policy – frugality in
spending to control debt (often
synonymous with fiscal cuts)

? City officials feel they have no choice
but to turn to private corporations for
sustained financial support

? Thus, private corporations are playing a
larger role in city governance (place-
making, building urban environment)

PADM 7224
20

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
The Effects of Austerity (Urban) Policy

? Other impacts of urban austerity policy:
? New private development tends to cater to

high-income persons, prices many city
residents out of their communities (i.e.,
gentrification)

? Contributing to the widening of income
inequality in cities

? Erosion of collective public space (due to
sale of public land/assets); turns to
privately-governed space

PADM 7224
21

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
Beyond Austerity & the Right to the City

? Current state – and future – of urban
policy appears to be leading to the
continued “disenfranchisement of
different groups in the city” (p. 227)

? Not a new trend – think neighborhood
destruction during mid-1900s highway
construction; and urban
entrepreneurial approaches of 1980s
and 1990s

PADM 7224
22

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
Beyond Austerity & the Right to the City

? Views of the possible “good city” (p.
228-230):
? “Autonomous self-organizing civil society…

within a framework of democratic
institutions” (Friedmann, 2000)

? Predicated on social justice and focused on
enhancing citizen well-being (Gleeson,
2014)

? Focuses on changing structural causes of
urban inequality and poverty through
collective ownership (Imbrosico, 2013)

PADM 7224
23

Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities:
Beyond Austerity & the Right to the City

? Four principles of “practical urban utopianism”
(Amin, 2006)
? Repair – inspect/fix infrastructure to ensure all

have good quality of life
? Relatedness – develop public culture through

space sharing
? Rights – ensure all citizens have a voice towards

shaping the city
? Re-enchantment – vibrant public spaces that

embrace differences
? “Future of the city will need to confront its

distinctive social and political context”
(Robinson, 2006)

PADM 7224
24

Web Links

? People or Place? Urban Policy in the Age
of Austerity (UK)
? https://barrowcadbury.org.uk/wp-

content/uploads/2012/09/People-or-Place-
Urban-Policy-in-the-Age-of-Austerity-FINAL-
FOR-WEB1.pdf

? Antipode Online (UK)
? https://antipodeonline.org/

? Urbanology
? https://urbanology.com/

  • Edwards & Imrie (2015)?Chapters 7 & 8
  • Chapter 7: Urban Renaissance & Sustainable urban development
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?The “Good City” & Urban Environmentalism
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?Sustainable Development and Urban Policy Dimensions
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?Sustainable Development and Urban Policy Dimensions
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?Sustainable Urban Policy An Evaluation
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?Alternative Visions for Sustainable Cities
  • Urban Renaissance & Sustainable Urban Development:?Web Links
  • Chapter 8: Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: Global Recession and the State of Cities
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: Urban Policy & Politics of Austerity
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: Global Recession and the State of Cities
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: The Effects of Austerity (Urban) Policy
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: The Effects of Austerity (Urban) Policy
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: Beyond Austerity & the Right to the City
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: Beyond Austerity & the Right to the City
  • Urban Recovery & the Future for Cities: Beyond Austerity & the Right to the City
  • Web Links

PADM 7224
1

MODULE

Seminar in Urban Problems

PADM 7224

University of Memphis
Department of Public &

Nonprofit Administration

Euchner & McGovern (2003)
Chapter 4 – Housing and the

Structure of Place

4

PADM 7224
2

Housing and the Structure of Place

? Housing refers to homeless shelters and
mansions and everything in between

? Housing is connected to one’s personal
conceptualization of “home”

? “Lumpy” – big and clumsy commodity in
the free market; takes substantial
investment, not portable, time consuming;
buying a house is a long-term bet

? Building affordable housing isn’t typically
profitable in the free market

PADM 7224
3

Housing and the Structure of Place

? “Government plays a vital role in making
existing land usable” – infrastructure
(streets, utilities, etc.) is key to
development

? Cities typically have large areas of usable
land, but government lacks the financial
resources to prepare for development

PADM 7224
4

Housing and the Structure of Place

? Housing has ripple effects on the
individual:
? Typically their biggest expense
? Location impacts access to opportunity (e.g.,

jobs)
? Location tied to public education – “where

you live often determines how much you
learn” (p. 140)

? Location tied to taxes

PADM 7224
5

Housing, Opportunity, and the City

? “American Dream” is often synonymous with
one owning their own home

? Poor and minorities are less likely to live in well-
maintained housing – society needs to offer the
opportunity to work up to better housing

? Housing impacts the labor force
? Home-life impacts work life
? Children (future labor force) are impacted by the

home environment
? Traditional gender roles have kept women out of the

labor force and as a homemaker

PADM 7224
6

Housing, Opportunity, and the City

? How is housing an “urban” issue?
? Cities constantly contend with where to

develop – “tale of two cities” encompasses
housing

? Loss of developer interest – easier to build in
suburbs than cities

? Building housing in cities requires meticulous
planning in relation to surroundings

? Sub-standard housing is prominent in poor
and minority communities in cities

PADM 7224
7

The Character of American Housing Policy

? Private ownership is the foundation of
housing policy – collective ownership of
housing in the U.S. is atypical

? Major federal government influence – tax
breaks on mortgage interest – primarily
benefits middle/upper class

? Primary federal government housing
agency – Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD)

? Public policy related to housing can be
conflictual

PADM 7224
8

Housing, the Economy, and the City

? Housing is related to roughly between
15-20% of the overall U.S. economy
? Congressional Research Service’s (2019)

Introduction to U.S. Economy: Housing
Market

? State of housing market typically
represents the state of the rest of the
economy

PADM 7224
9

Housing, the Economy, and the City

? How to measure housing affordability?
? Percent of income (usually less than 30%)
? Shelter poverty standard – if housing expenses

impact the ability to afford other necessities
? Owning vs. renting

? Government-funded housing assistance
programs (e.g., “Section 8”) assist with
affordability but have typically long waiting-
lists and have minor impacts on shelter
poverty rates

PADM 7224
10

Housing, the Economy, and the City

? How to measure housing affordability?
? Percent of income (usually less than 30%)
? Shelter poverty standard – if housing expenses

impact the ability to afford other necessities
? Owning vs. renting

? Government-funded housing assistance
programs (e.g., “Section 8”) assist with
affordability but have typically long waiting-
lists and have minor impacts on shelter
poverty rates

PADM 7224
11

Housing, the Economy, and the City

? Gentrification typically comes at the
expense of poor and minorities – displaces
communities

? National Community Reinvestment
Coalition’s (2019) Shifting Neighborhoods:
Gentrification and cultural displacement in
American cities
? Concentrated in cities; near central business

districts
? Black and Hispanic residents impacted

disproportionately

PADM 7224
12

Housing, the Economy, and the City

? Urban housing policy must effectively
address the housing rental market
? Are rentals safe, secure, and affordable?
? Are there wrongful eviction protections?
? How to address professional landlords (i.e.,

corporations) vs. mom-and-pop landlords?

PADM 7224
13

Housing Policy

? “Rules of the game”:
? Federal government regulates banks and interest

rates – housing loans
? Federal, state, and local government set laws to

prevent discrimination in sale or rent of housing
? State and local regulate development (how build)

and zoning (where build)
? Two policy approaches:
? Create more housing (supply) (e.g., Community

Development Corporations, public housing)
? Impact purchasing power (demand) (e.g., Section

8, rent control laws, mortgage interest deduction)

PADM 7224
14

Regulating the Housing Environment:
Financial Institutions

? Federal government involvement in
housing spurred by Great Depression

? Federal Housing Act of 1934
? Among multiple other things, backed banks

on long-term low-down payment
mortgages – gave opportunity for working-
class families to own a home

? Introduced mortgage deduction on federal
income tax

PADM 7224
15

Regulating the Housing Environment:
Fairness

? Fairness in housing was late to the game
– racial discrimination was rampant,
Federal Housing Authority actively
encouraged such (see excerpts from
1934 manual)

? Supreme Court decision in Shelley v.
Kramer (1948) – “restrictive covenants”
(legal clauses prevented property sales
to minorities) were deemed
unconstitutional

PADM 7224
16

Regulating the Housing Environment:
Fairness

? Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of Civil Rights Act of
1968)
? “prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental, and

financing of dwellings, and in other housing-related
transactions, because of race, color, religion, sex,
familial status, national origin, and disability.”

? Lacked enforcement “teeth”
? Someone trying to find a place to live will unlikely

seek legal action against those supporting
discriminatory practices as they don’t have the
resources to do so

? Urban Institute – “no question that access to
housing remains unequal” in today’s society

PADM 7224
17

Regulating the Housing Environment:
Local Development

? Zoning – codes and ordinances enacted by
local government to limit what kinds of
building can be built where in their
jurisdiction (i.e., community)
? Function, size of structure, and property

alignments
? Historically used to isolate poor and minority

populations
? State building codes determine the rules

by which builders can build structures –
difficultly is to balance between ensuring
safety and limiting overburdensome codes

PADM 7224
18

The Demand Side: Improving People’s
Purchasing Power

? Mortgage interest tax benefit
? Tax break for people to deduct mortgage

insurance from federal income tax bill
? Intended to encourage home buying
? Disproportionately benefits middle-class and

affluent populations; owners over renters
? Brookings Institute – the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

of 2017 is expected to reduce the claiming of
mortgage interest deduction to about 8% of all
returns (down from 20%

PADM 7224
19

The Demand Side: Improving People’s
Purchasing Power

? Local property tax benefit
? Tax break for people to deduct local

property tax from federal income tax bill
? Local property tax varies substantially from

place to place, state to state

? Would eliminating these tax benefits
destroy the housing market? Limit
people’s ability to purchase homes?

PADM 7224
20

The Demand Side: Improving People’s
Purchasing Power

? Section 8 Vouchers (Housing Choice
Vouchers) – started during Nixon (1974)
as alternative to public housing
? Criticisms:
? Not enough vouchers, long waiting lists
? Not enough Section 8 housing (i.e., rental units

that accept vouchers)
? Perpetuates social and racial isolation
? Program that doesn’t encourage positive

behavior on either the side of the tenant or the
landlord

PADM 7224
21

The Demand Side: Improving People’s
Purchasing Power

? Secondary housing market
? New Deal era created quasi-government

institutions that bought mortgages from banks to
free up opportunity for banks to give out more
mortgages (e.g., Fannie Mae)

? Freddie Mac established in 1970 to accomplish
similar ends

? Fannie and Freddie assisted with housing growth in
suburbs, rather than housing growth in cities

? Fannie and Freddie were involved in subprime
mortgage crisis contributing to 2008 housing crisis
and recession; required government bailout –
Marketplace’s 10 years after the bailout

PADM 7224
22

The Demand Side: Improving People’s
Purchasing Power

? Rent Control – local government policy
that places limits on landlord rent prices
? Not a widely used policy – primarily in NJ,

NY, CA, and D.C.
? Difficult lies with balancing market fluidity

vs. renter protection

? Urban Institute 2019 policy brief on rent
control in the U.S.

PADM 7224
23

The Supply Side: Creating More Units

? Public housing
? Original intent – gateway to private housing for

those in temporary need – has not been the
outcome

? Isolation by design and by NIMBY powers
? Most Americans who don’t live in public housing

have a stereotypical negative image of housing
projects and their residents, regardless of the
project or the resident

? Diverse stories about success and failures – Five
Myths about Public Housing

? “Public housing reflects the ambivalence of
Americans towards class and race as well as a deep
skepticism about the purpose of government.” (p.
170)

PADM 7224
24

The Supply Side: Creating More Units

? Nonprofit housing development
? Nonprofits – particularly locally-based Community

Development Corporations (CDCs) – play HUGE role in
public housing

? CDCs make deals to build up low-income communities
through obtaining funding (philanthropic, grants, loans),
acquiring land, and building housing – requires STRONG
leadership

? Local nonprofits supported by nationwide organizations
(e.g., Local Initiatives Support Corporation)

? Relationship between CDCs and local governments is
mixed – partners and conflictual

? Congressional Research Service (2019) – Effectiveness of
the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977

PADM 7224
25

The Supply Side: Creating More Units

? Homelessness
? Numerous contributing factors; not one single leading

structural or individual factor; complex policy
response to address all or even some

? Ranges from living on the street to couch surfing;
working to unemployed – all stories are different

? Primary source of data about homelessness and
homeless people in the U.S. – HUD’s Annual Homeless
Assessment Report (AHAR)

? Primary federal response to homelessness –
Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition
to Housing Act (HEARTH Act, 2009); formerly
McKinney-Vento Act

? Lack of supply of shelters, SROs, transitional housing,
and permanent supportive housing

PADM 7224
26

The Supply Side: Creating More Units

? Future of Housing Policy
? Two broad policy approaches: market and social

production
? Market – local govt remove barriers for private

sector to address affordable and public housing
crises

? Social production (CDC approach) – grassroots
participation to rebuild cities “block by block”
with support from both private and public
sector, driven by CDCs

? Community revitalization plans are key – how
does new/redeveloped housing tie in the
broader community plan?
? Example – Pittsburgh Community Reinvestment Group

  • Euchner & McGovern (2003)?Chapter 4 – Housing and the Structure of Place
  • Housing and the Structure of Place
  • Housing and the Structure of Place
  • Housing and the Structure of Place
  • Housing, Opportunity, and the City
  • Housing, Opportunity, and the City
  • The Character of American Housing Policy
  • Housing, the Economy, and the City
  • Housing, the Economy, and the City
  • Housing, the Eco