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Text Analysis


– create a clear and critical argument:

Concise thesis statement and each paragraph begin with a topic sentence that makes a

– use evidence effectively to support the argument :

Effective use of evidence from the text that is relevant to the argument

– interpret evidence and demonstrate critical analysis :

demonstrate through interpretation how the argument was supported by the evidence.

Organization of paper :
Content was clearly thought-out and presented in a logical format. Information flowed
well, with clear links between paragraphs and ideas.

Ability to properly locate and cite evidence :
Proper citations of ancient sources and all references to the text are cited

Mechanics of writing :

Submission is grammatically correct with rare misspellings. Use of language is
appropriate for the recommended audience. Avoids personal pronouns and

– 3-4 pages of text (i.e. 1,000-1,200 words)
– Double spaced with standard font (Times New Roman, size 12
– Standard margins (1 inch top and bottom, left and right sides)
– some sort of fancy-schmancy title
– If you use sources other than those assigned for this class in completing this

assignment, you will need to provide a list of those sources (Bibliography) on a
separate page at the end of your paper.

Citation Requirements

You will be expected to use parenthetical citation in your Text Analysis. The purpose of
these citations is to indicate to your readers where you found specific information that
you have included in your paper, whether from the assigned readings or textbook. As
long as you are using those sources, your citation need only include the author’s name
and the section number of text on which the information appears. For example:

According to Plato, Socrates told the jury that he knew he had no wisdom, small or
great, (Plato, 4.1).

The Epic of Gilgamesh “depicts a world ruled by polytheistic gods and their demands of
humanity,” (Margolf and Heineman, Early Near East and Egypt).

The topic for Text Analysis

What glimpses do we get from Homer’s Iliad of the respective roles of men in society?
How do those differ from the roles of women in Greek society? What values would
these poems have taught young children?

Some Rules for Successful Writing Assignments:

1. Spell out time references: “seventh century” instead of “7th century.”
2. Hyphenate time references correctly, according to their use in the sentence: “The Trojan
War is thought to have occurred in the twelfth-century BC.” (adjective). “In the twelfth
century, war was a constant threat to society.” (noun).
3. When using brief quotations, remember to use quotation marks to indicate clearly when
you are reproducing someone else’s words verbatim:
As Spielvogel notes, “Women were citizens who could participate in most religious
cults and festivals,” (Spielvogel, 84).
4. Remember to cite specific material that you paraphrase – the ideas came from someone
else, even if you expressed or summarized in your own words!
5. Avoid slang, jargon and contractions (can’t, don’t, haven’t)
6. Remember to make the subjects and verbs agree in number, as well as nouns and
pronouns: “Scholars could circulate their ideas in print” rather than “A scholar could
circulate their ideas in print.”
7. Avoid run-on sentences, comma splices, and paragraphs that go on for 2-3 pages! (In
other words, think carefully about sentence structure, punctuation and paragraph
8. Avoid overuse of the passive voice (The cat was chased by the dog) in favor of the active
voice (the dog chased the cat). Active voice is more direct, more vivid and allows you to
use more verbs.
9. Remember to use the past tense where appropriate in writing about the past (which is

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Pr i m a r y R e s o u rce s

C h a p te r 3 Pr i m a r y S o u rce s

( h tt p s : //co l o r s t a te .g r l co n te n t .co m /we s te r n c i v p re m o d e r n /pa g e /p r i m a r y re s o u rce s )

( h tt p s : //co l o r s t a te .g r l co n te n t .co m /we s te r n c i v p re m o d e r n /pa g e /c h p t 3 p r i m a r ys o u rc

e s )

Homer’s Iliad

Iliad VI. 243–497.
Homer, Iliad. William Cowper translation (1791), adapted and modernized by Kristin Heineman


[243–254]  But when Hector came to Priam’s palace, built with splendid

porches, and which had in it �fty chambers lined with polished stone built

near one another, where Priam’s sons and their wives rested, and where, on

the other side of the courtyard in twelve magni�cent chambers also lined

with polished marble, the sons-in-law of Priam lay beside his spotless

daughters.  There his mother queen accompanied by Laodice, loveliest of all

her children, went and met Hector.


[255–262]  She grasped his hand and said: Why do you leave the dangerous

battle, my son? I fear that the Greeks (hateful name!) are wearing you down

and �ghting around the city, so that you seek, urged by distress, the acropolis,

to lift your hands in prayer to Zeus? But pause awhile until I shall bring you

wine.  First, let us pour rich libation to Zeus and the other gods so that you

may drink and be refreshed. For wine is mighty and renews the strength of

weary man; and weary you must be having long defended your city and your



[263–287]  To whom Hector majestically replied: “My dear mother, do not

bring me wine, unless I forget my might. I fear, beside, with unwashed hands

to pour libation of wine to Zeus, nor is it right to pray to the storm-stirring

god when I am spattered with blood and gore.  You, therefore, gather all our

Fahad Alkarzai
Fahad Alkarzai
Fahad Alkarzai
Fahad Alkarzai
Fahad Alkarzai

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women, and take burnt offerings to the temple of Athena Pallas, huntress of

the spoil. Select from the attire treasured within thy chamber the most

beautiful robe, the one which you prize most—then spread the gift on Athena

Pallas’ divine lap. Promise you will sacri�ce twelve one-year old heifers,

untouched with puncture of the prod, if she will pity city of Troy, and our

wives and our children, in hopes that she will avert the son of Tydeus from

these sacred towers, that dreadful Chief, terror of our entire host.  Go then,

my mother, seek the hallowed temple of Athena. I, meanwhile, will go see

Paris and call him out, if he is still willing to hear. May the earth yawn and

swallow him whole! He who Zeus had made a curse to Troy, and to Priam and

to his entire house; I think to see him plunged into the house of Hades

forever!  This would cure all my woes.”


[288–298]  So he spoke. The Queen, entering her palace, called out to her

maidens. They, throughout Troy, gathered all the women and convened just

as she requested. In the meantime, she went into her incense-fumed

wardrobe where her treasures lay, the works of Sidonian women, who were

brought to Troy by her godlike son Paris, when he crossed the seas with well-

begotten Helen. She chose the most magni�cent and most colorful, vivid as a

star it shone, the loveliest of all in the sky.  Then she went, the Trojan matrons

all following her steps.


[299–313]  But when the long procession reached the temple of Athena in

the heights of Troy, the fair Theano Daughter of Cisseus, brave Antenor’s

spouse, opened the doors wide.  She had been, at this time, appointed as

Priestess of Athena.  All with lifted hands in prayer to Athena, they wept

aloud. Beautiful Theano placed the robe on the Goddess’ lap, and to the fair

daughter of Zeus omnipotent her prayer she addressed. Goddess of

Goddesses, our city’s shield, adored Athena, hear! oh! break the lance of

Diomede, and allow him to fall prone in the dust before the Scæan gate. So

that we may offer to you at your shrine, on this day twelve one-year old

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heifers, untouched by yoke or prod, if you will show pity to Troy, and save our

children and our wives. Such prayer the priestess offered, but Athena did not

accept the request.


[314–331]  But meanwhile, Hector went to the palace of Alexander, which

himself had built, aided by every illustrious architect in Troy. The chamber

had a wide hall, proud dome, and on the top of the city of Troy Priam’s house

neighbored Hector’s house. There entered Hector, Zeus-beloved, and in his

hand he held a spear sixteen feet in length, its glittering point bound with a

ring of gold.  He found Paris within his chamber, polishing with the most exact

care, his resplendent armor, shield, and his chest plate, while �ngering over

with curious touch and tampering with his bow. Helen of Argos with her

female train sat occupied, assigning each their own task. Hector �xed his eyes

on Paris, rebuked him with his stern look, “Your adventures of the heart are

ill-timed. The people perish at our lofty walls; the �ames of war have

compassed Troy entirely and it is you who has kindled them. Your slackness

shows; you should �ght with anyone who holds back in this hateful war, so

come to battle before the whole city burns.”


[332–344]  To which Paris replied, “Graceful as a god since, Hector, you have

charged me with a fault, and not unjustly, I will give you an answer, and give

you special heed. The reason I sit here is because of sorrow, which I wished to

ease, in secret, not displeasure or revenge. I tell you also, that now even my

wife tried to convince me in most soothing terms that I should go to battle,

and I myself am aware that victory often changes sides and that is the course

I prefer. Wait awhile, therefore, until I dress for the �ght, or go �rst, and I will

catch up soon.” He stopped speaking, to whom brave Hector did not reply. 


[345–368]  Helen addressed Hector with lenient speech, “My brother! who

in me has found a sister worthy of your hatred , the author of all Troy’s

calamity, oh I wish that the winds, on the day I was born, had swept me out of

sight and whirled me aloft to some inhospitable mountain-top, or plunged me

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in the deep.  I wish that there I had sunk overwhelmed, and all these ills had

never taken place. But since the gods would bring these ills to pass, I should,

at least, have chosen some mate more worthy, one not immune to public

shame! But this man has an unstable mind, and it will always be unstable! 

Someday he shall �nd his just reward. But come in, take this seat, my brother,

for troubles follow you most because of me! The crime, my brother, for which

the gods have fated, both for Paris and my most detested self, will be the

burdens of an endless song!” To which the warlike Hector replied, “Bid me

not, Helen, to a seat, however you wish I may stay, for you won’t persuade me.

The Trojans miss me, and I myself am anxious to return to them.  But urge in

this man to get moving, or just let him urge himself to overtake me while I am

still in town. For I must head home quickly so that I may see my beloved

Andromache and my infant boy, and my domestic servants, since I am

ignorant if ever I will see them again, or if my fate ordains me now to fall by

Grecian hands.”


[369–390]  So spoke the dauntless hero, and he left. But he soon reached his

own well-built abode but he did not �nd his fair Andromache inside.  Rather,

she stood lamenting Hector, with the wet nurse who helped her bore her

infant son. He then, not �nding his chaste wife inside, asked her attendants

from the doorway, “Tell me, maidens, where is Andromache the fair? Did she

go see her sisters or one of my brother’s wives?  Or to Athena’s temple,

where the bright-haired matrons of the city gather to appease the awful

Goddess? Tell me true.” To which his household’s servant replied, “Hector, if

truth is your demand, receive this true answer: She did not go to see her

sisters, nor to Athena’s temple, where the bright-haired matrons of the city

gather to appease the awful Goddess; but she went to the tower of Troy, for

she had heard that the Greeks had prevailed, and driven the Trojans to the

walls.  She, therefore, with wild grief, went to the tower with haste, along

with her wet nurse and young child.” So spoke the prudent attendant. 


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[391–402]  When Hector heard her words issuing from his door he left the

house with  hasty steps, back through the streets of lofty Troy.  Having

traversed the entire spacious city, he �nally approached The Scæan gate,

through which he leaves the city and passes through the plain.  There, his

noble wife met him.  Andromache the rich-endowed and fair daughter of

Eëtion famed in arms, who lived in Hypoplacian Thebes, Cilicia’s mighty lord. 

It was his daughter whom valiant Hector had wedded and she met him there,

along with her wet nurse, bearing in her arms Scamandrios, his infant darling

boy, beautiful as a star.  Although Hector called Scamandrios, the rest of Troy

called him Astyanax, for that Hector’s arm alone was the defense and

strength of Troy.


 [403–426]  The father, silent, eyed his babe, and smiled. Andromache,

meanwhile, stood before him, with tears streaming down her cheeks, grasped

his hand, and said, “Your own great courage will destroy you, my noble

Hector! Neither do you take pity on your helpless infant nor my pitiful self,

whose widowhood is near; for you will fall before long, assailed by the whole

host of Greece. Then let my tomb be my best retreat when you are dead – for

I can expect neither comfort nor joy after your death, only sorrow. I have no

father and no mother.  When Cilicia’s city, Thebes was sacked by Achilles, he

slew my father; but he did not strip him of his reverence, because he

respected him.  He burned my father in his armor on a funeral pyre, and �lled

his tomb, which the nymphs, Zeus’ daughters, had enclosed with elm trees.

 My seven brothers, the glory of our house, all in one day descended to the

house of Hades.   For brave Achilles, while they fed their herds and snowy

�ocks together, slew them all. My mother, Queen of the well-wooded realm

Of Hypoplacian Thebes, was brought among his other spoils.  Achilles sold

her inestimable ransom-price, but by Artemis’ arrow pierced her and she died

at home.


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[427–451]  Yet Hector—oh my husband! I in you I �nd parents, brothers, and

all that I have lost. Come! Have compassion on us. Do not go to battle, but

guard this tower, unless you make a widow of me and an orphan of your

young boy. The city walls are easiest of ascent at that �g-tree; station your

troops there, for some prophet told me this.  Each Ajax with Idomeneus of

Crete, the sons of Atreus, and the valiant son of Tydeus, have now three

times assailed the town and tested the wall.”  Great Hector replied, “These

cares, Andromache, which you engage, all touch me as well, but I dread to

incur the scorn of male and female tongues in Troy, if, I should decline the

�ght like a coward.  Nor feel I such a wish. No. I have learned to be

courageous always, in the forefront among the �ghters of Troy to

demonstrate my glorious father’s honor, and also my own. For the day shall

come when sacred Troy, when Priam, and the people of the of his kingdom

shall perish, I am sure. But I weep for no Trojan, not even for Hecuba, nor yet

for Priam, nor for all the brave of my own brothers who shall kiss the dust, or

for you and I, because far greater is the sorrow I would have when the Greeks

take you away crying, and take away your freedom.”


[452–477]  Then you shall toil in Argos at the loom for a task-mistress, and

constrained you will draw water from Hypereïa’s fountain or from Messeïs

fountain, her proud command. Some Greek then, seeing your tears, shall say

— “This was the wife of Hector, who excelled all Troy in �ght when Troy was

besieged.” Such they will say to you, and your heart, all the while, will bleed

fresh through want of such a friend to stand between captivity and yourself.

But may I rest beneath my hill of earth or before that day arrive! I would not

live to hear your cries, and see you torn away!” So saying, illustrious Hector

stretched his arms forth to his son, but with a scream, the child fell back into

the bosom of his nurse, afraid of his father’s face, whose bright armor he had

attentively marked and his shaggy crest poking out over his helmet’s height.

His father and his gentle mother laughed and noble Hector lifting from his

head, he placed his dazzling helmet, on the ground, then kissed his boy and

handled him, and thus in earnest prayer the heavenly powers implored,

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“Listen, gods! as you have given to me, so also on my son excelling might

bestow, with chief authority in Troy. And be his record this, in time to come,

when he returns from battle, help my son excel even his father! May every

foe fall under him, and he comes home laden with spoils blood-stained to his

dear mother’s joy!” He said, and gave his infant to the arms of his

Andromache, who she welcomed him into her fragrant bosom, bitter tears

with sweet smiles mingling. 


[478-–497]  Hector was moved with pity at this sight, touched her cheek

softly, and said, “Do not mourn too much for me, my beloved Andromache, no

man shall send me to the house of Hades, before my allotted hour, and

nobody lives who can live longer than that date which heaven assigned him,

be he base or brave.  Go then, and occupy yourself with the housework, the

woman’s sphere; practice the distaff, spin and weave, and order your

servants their work.  War belongs to man; to all men; and of all who �rst drew

vital breath in Troy, and most of all to me. He ceased, and he raised his

crested helmet from the ground.  His Andromache, at once obedient, to her

home began to leave, but turned several times as she went and each time she

wept again.  No sooner that she arrived at the palace that her numerous

maidens were found within, she raised a general lamentation, with one voice,

in Hector’s own house, his whole domestic train mourned Hector, yet still

alive; for none the hope conceived of his escape from Greek hands, or to

behold their living master more.




















is a






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