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Rebeca Urbina

Florida National University

NGR 5674-Population Health, Epidemiology, and Statistical Principles

Dr. Jacqueline Alonso

March 15, 2022

 Culture of Health and Wellness

           According to Kohll (2017), a culture of health and wellbeing is one in which decent wellbeing and health blossom across demographic, geographic, and social fields, nurturing equitable, healthy workplaces that encourage and promote people’s wellbeing. Gunther et al. (2019) report that a good culture helps support population health. The people participating in a culture of wellness and health aim for a higher level of wellness and health than others. The expected outcome of such an environment is better life quality with reduced morbidity to the participants. Such cultures encompass participants with policies, cues, and environments that regularly steer one to healthy selections on the unconscious and conscious basis (Nash et al., 2016). A healthy and well-being culture makes it more rewarding and easy to select lifestyles that encourage health. Nash et al. (2016) state that studies have shown that to reduce chronic illness gradually, they need to eat right, stop smoking, exercise regularly, manage stress, and drink alcohol in moderation. The same source adds that World Health Organization has estimated that type two diabetes and eighty percent of cardiovascular diseases could be eliminated through physical activities.

            Benchmark firms have storerooms for data, and most have progressed cockpits and scorecards that are used to drive and guide improvement at the organizational, business, and department levels. Many of the organizations employ physician executives committed to boosting wellness and health among the people. The professionals are trained in population management and medicine and are given enough resources to address and identify improvement opportunities (Nash et al., 2016). These organizations publish annual outcomes on their programs, and some institutions bestow awards based on how others compare to the well-known wellness organizations. By studying benchmark organizations’ scoreboard systems, any other corporation can determine its position concerning its performance (Nash et al., 2016). To use the benchmarks effectively, organizations need to identify gaps between the cultivated culture of health programs and their efforts to build a strategic plan to achieve desirable outcomes (Nash et al., 2016). Finally, an organization can use nationally recommended care guidelines as a benchmark. For example, a firm can compare how the wellness of its staff or patients compares to the national average.

Fee-for-service payment model as a care delivery services

The traditional model, known as fee-for-service, simply assigns reimbursements based on what services a healthcare organization provides. But in value-based care, reimbursement is contingent upon the quality of the care provided and it comes tethered to patient outcomes. This seemingly simple pivot of emphasis requires major changes on the part of healthcare providers. In fee-for-service models, a service provider is compensated a certain amount regardless of patient outcomes. HealthCare.gov (2018) reports that services typically included in the model are office visits, procedures, and tests. Healthcare practitioners benefit from FFS as they self-refer themselves to their private facilities to make more money. Also, the fee-for-service model encourages healthcare providers to fill as many beds and perform as many high-tech procedures, as possible. That succeeds in driving up the cost of healthcare, but it doesn’t improve patient outcomes.


Gunther, C. E., Peddicord, V., Kozlowski, J., Li, Y., Menture, D., Fabius, R., Frazee, S. G., & Nigro, P. J. (2019). Building a Culture of Health and Well-Being at Merck. Population Health Management, 22(5), 449–456. https://doi.org/10.1089/pop.2018.0116

HealthCare.gov. (2018). Fee for Service – HealthCare.gov Glossary. HealthCare.gov. https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/fee-for-service/

 Kohll, A. (2017, April 6). How You Can Nurture A Culture Of Wellness. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/alankohll/2017/04/06/how-you-can-nurture-a-culture-of-wellness/?sh=18fea3ea1525

Nash, D. B., Fabius, R. J., Clarke, J. L., Skoufalos, A., & Horowitz, M. R. (2016). Population health: creating a culture of wellness (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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Yindra Burgos Farah

March 15th, 2022

In fee-for-service ideal, present volume-based recompenses the one who provided service for essential services concentrated, producing an incentive to deliver additional services. It also promotes ascending to extra highly repaid procedures. This notable model relies on the ethical character of the service provider, which leads to increased stress on the pre-authorization of services by third-party payers. On the other hand, the hint about value-based care is to highlight results so that patients, and the one paying, can remain trusting that the physician or service provider will retain the costs low whereas giving the correct equal of service(Thaker & Feeley,2016). A value-based, joint savings ideal can include sure of the fee-for-service outline. This would essentially create an incentive for service workers to receive the precise attention and save cash simultaneously.

There are several types of care delivery that are incentivized by these volume-based. Some of them are; physician autonomy, excessive coverage, pricing and two-tiered service. The strong desire to move from the volume-based to a value-based model is taken as a footstep towards deciding these concerns in the care delivery service (Thaker & Feeley, 2016).

Pricing in both fee-for-service and value-based

I have chosen the pricing; pricing in value-based is set mainly based on a customer’s alleged value of the care service delivered. In this case, companies give pricing based on how much the client believes the service is worth. Alternatively, pricing on fee-for-service is based on all services rendered to the patient despite of the result. Doctors claim by setting their own prices. They will be able to reduce excessive bulk through pricing. Though, price control exponents claim that the valuing then becomes moreover high, and inflation occurs in for care which is critical (Schroeder & Frist, 2013). The solution to this will be grouping price switches on specific collective processes and the capability to value others in the new value-based system. This may provide some of the benefits of both.


Schroeder, S. A., & Frist, W. (2013). Phasing Out Fee-For-Service Payment. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(21).

Thaker, N. G., & Feeley, T. W. (2016). Creating the Healthcare Transformation from Volume to Value. America’s Healthcare Transformation. Strategies and Innovations. Ed. Phillips, RA Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, USA, 295-318.

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Noralina Almora

3/15/22, 4:53 AM

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A qualitative study is a type of research method that involves the collection of non-numerical data such as interview answers, text, observations, or videos (Rahman,2020). This essay purposes to expound on a qualitative study, its advantages, and disadvantages. As the paper suggests, qualitative study is suitable for my health promotion initiative due to its flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and allowance to use instincts and creativity.

In qualitative study, the focus is on understanding humanistic behavior in terms of their individuality, cultures, or societal contexts. A common type of qualitative study is phenomenology which empathizes on using perception to understand an event. An example would be on getting people to opinion on the Ukraine-Russia conflict. Using the narrative analysis, a researcher can capture meaningful perspectives of the events.Another type is case study methods essential when constructing formula strategies and new methods. A case study topic on the benefits of early screening of cancer analyzed through grounded theory can provide new insights on the phenomenon.

What makes qualitative study stand out is its way of capturing human behaviour and perspectives, giving meaning to a concept. Some of the advantages of using qualitative study include it is subject-driven, it is open-ended, it is predictable, and it is less costly compared to other research study methods (Rahman,2020) . Further, it is flexible in terms of easy change of settings or questions, giving the researcher a chance to improve and perfect the study. Data can be from any era and can adapt to any format that seems fit. Also, qualitative study entertains speculative thinking allowing the researcher to get creative and innovative. Lastly is the advantage of interpreting non-numerical information.

Regardless, qualitative study is highly prone to bias. Bias may take the form of self-selection whereby only those willing to contribute their views are included. Another form is sample bias, especially with its flexibility and speculative thinking (Rahman,2020). Qualitative study is also subject to the norm, meaning results are highly influenced by societal beliefs and culture.

Due to its flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and allowance to use instincts and creativity, I  would use qualitative tests to determine the effectiveness of my health promotion initiative.


 Rahman, M. S. (2020). The advantages and disadvantages of using qualitative and quantitative approaches and methods in language “testing and assessment” research: A literature review.

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Naiviv Barcelo

3/14/22, 11:47 AM 


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Qualitative research is gathering and evaluating non-numerical data (such as text, video, or audio) to better comprehend concepts, views, or experiences (Aspers & Corte, 2019). It can be utilized to get in-depth insights into a topic or to develop fresh research ideas. One of the benefits is that the qualitative research technique enables the collection of actual thoughts from certain socioeconomic populations. Second, in comparison to other research methodologies, qualitative research employs a lower sample size. This is because more information is gathered from each participant. It is also an open-minded method, which means there are no “correct” or “wrong” answers, making data collecting considerably easier.

Some of the disadvantages are that the qualitative research method does not yield statistical results (Tenny, Brannan, Brannan, & Sharts-Hopko, 2022). It will only supply study data from a single point of view. Second, the qualitative research data is based on the experience of the researchers participating in the process. Third, in qualitative research, data must be identified by the researchers before it can be gathered. That is, there is a level of trust involved in the data-gathering process that is not inherent in other types of research.

To investigate the attitude of a healthcare professional’s perspectives on varied cultures and beliefs in healthcare, you may choose an anthropological technique. You work at a healthcare center for several years and collect data using a variety of ways, including Gathering field notes and reflecting on personal experiences with the clinicians’ culture. You conduct in-depth interviews with other professionals in your practice to understand more about their experiences and points of view.

I would use qualitative research because qualitative research is not only cheaper but also, data is useful in identifying the frequency of specific qualities or attributes. It would enable me to create parameters that may be used to examine bigger data sets because the use of qualitative data allows observers to quantify the environment around them.





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Noralina Almora

3/15/22, 4:52 AM

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Health Care Informatics

How Healthcare Informatics Impacts Epidemiology and Health Promotion

Health care informatics involves using data and information technology to achieve the aims of health care provision (Annappa et al., 2021) which include lowering the cost of healthcare services and improving both patients’ and providers’ satisfaction among others. Data is collected by the use of surveillance systems that collect and shed light on data that is necessary for the preparation and prevention of an illness. By the use of this data, disasters are predicted long before they strike (Leung et al., 2021), investigated and the necessary measures are taken in response to the pandemic. Due to the epidemiologic risk of diseases, there is a need for close monitoring of factors causing diseases. This calls for information management which can be accomplished by the use of healthcare informatics.

Health care informatics has had a positive impact on epidemiology. Through the use of electronic surveillance systems used in healthcare informatics, professionals can gather data from healthcare facilities that have been collected continuously. The gathered data is used to make predictions on upcoming outbreaks (Leung et al., 2021). This could help in the prevention of the disease by handling the factors that could potentially lead to the outbreak of a certain disease. Additionally, it helps them in taking effective containment measures by the time the pandemic strikes. This ensures health promotion by bettering the health of individuals, and the community at large. It also helps protect them from the severity of the illnesses hence reducing the mortality rate. It also reduces the financial burden that comes with pandemics. Through the application of health informatics, there is faster and easier access to evidence hence improving the quality of services offered to patients as well as promoting evidence-based care.



Leung, C. K., Fung, D. L., Mai, D., Wen, Q., Tran, J., & Souza, J. (2021, July). Explainable data          analytics for disease and healthcare informatics. In 25th International Database  Engineering & Applications Symposium (pp. 65-74).

Annappa, B., Kumar, M. M., & Thomas, L. (2021). Foundations of healthcare informatics.          In Demystifying Big Data, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning for Healthcare Analytics (pp. 3-15). Academic Press.

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Rebeca Urbina

Impacts of Health Care Informatics on Epidemiology & Health Promotion

Health care informatics is a science of processing data for storage. Informatics is an essential aspect as it is integrated into the health care system for epidemiology and public health promotion. Informatics has improved efficiency in preventing outbreaks, case identification, public health surveillance, and acquisition of laboratory information.

In the health sector, informatics is essential in public health surveillance. Data through informatics is collected for analyses and interpretation, which is necessary for planning, evaluating public health and research i.e., epidemiology. Public health officials employ surveillance, using health-related information that indicates a high enough chance of a case or an epidemic (Magnuson et al., 2020). The surveillance systems are designed to acquire unfiltered and unprecedented data. Informatics allows the collection of firsthand data through surveys, electronic data, and case reporting from doctors (Reeves et al., 2021). Therefore, information obtained is used in the detection of possible infectious cases has been targeted via surveillance. It’s also utilized to keep an eye out for bioterrorist attacks.

Informatics has also aided in facilitating the detection and prevention of potential disease outbreaks. The informatics provides the health care system with enough information to allow the department to make assumptions of possible outbreaks and promote early preparation for the outbreak. According to McGonigle (2021), the rapid response depends solely on the data retrieved by medical experts through a timely collection of data. Therefore, health systems will have the knowledge and time to act before health hazards happen. Remarkably, informatics is a vital tool in epidemiology and health promotion. They are responsible for providing information that would be handy to health workers. Therefore, it promotes health by reducing the possibility of an outbreak and providing information on the general population.


Magnuson, J. A., Hopkins, R., & McFarlane, T. D. (2020). Informatics in disease prevention and epidemiology. In Public Health Informatics and Information Systems (pp. 239-258). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7123923/

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2021). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Reeves, J. J., Pageler, N. M., Wick, E. C., Melton, G. B., Tan, Y. H. G., Clay, B. J., & Longhurst, C. A. (2021). The clinical information systems response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Yearbook of medical informatics, 30(01), 105-125.