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Read page 27 in the textbook Interpersonal Messages—1.2 Assessing Your Social Network Profile
Answer all eight questions listed below. Apply (use) key terms within your answers. See a list of key terms on page 26.

Please read chapters 1-4  

Interpersonal Messages
Fourth Edition

Joseph A. DeVito

Chapter 2

Culture and Interpersonal Communication

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1

Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

2.1 Define culture, enculturation, ethnic identity, and acculturation, and explain why culture is important in intercultural communication.

2.2 Explain and give examples of the seven major ways cultures differ from one another.

2.3 Define intercultural communication, and explain the guidelines for effective intercultural communication.

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2

Culture (1 of 5)
2.1 Define culture, enculturation, ethnic identity, and acculturation, and explain why culture is important in intercultural communication.

Culture: specialized lifestyle of a group of people passed on from one generation to the next through communication, not genes.

Every group has developed

Values

Beliefs

Artifacts

Languages

Ways of behaving

Ways of thinking

Art, laws, and religion

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3

Culture (2 of 5)

Sex

Biological distinction between male and female

Gender

Cultural roles of “masculine” and “feminine”

What are your gender expectations of men? Women?

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VIEWPOINTS Gender Stereotypes

The stereotype of the male generally defines him as logical, decisive, aggressive, insensitive, unemotional, non-nurturing, mechanically talented, and impatient. The stereotype of the female generally defines her as illogical, variable, nurturing, emotional, sensitive, mechanically untalented, and patient. (Ciccarelli & White, 2016).

Do your acquaintances maintain any of these stereotypes? What are some of the implications of thinking through these stereotypes?

5

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5

Culture (3 of 5)

Learning Cultures

Enculturation

How culture is transmitted from one generation to the next

Ethnic identity

Acculturation

How you learn the rules and norms of a culture different than your native culture

Being exposed to a new culture

Who teaches you culture?

Can ethnic identity cause ethnocentrism?

How has your culture been modified by contact with a different culture?

Who teaches you culture?

Can ethnic identity cause ethnocentrism?

How has your culture been modified by contact with a different culture?

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enculturation – the process by which culture is transmitted from one generation to another; you learn the culture into which you’re born (your native culture)

acculturation – the process by which one culture is modified or changed through contact with or exposure to another culture

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Culture (4 of 5)

The Importance of Culture

Demographic changes

Sensitivity to cultural differences

Economic interdependence

Communication technology

Culture-specific nature of interpersonal communication

Figure 2.1 Factors accounting for the importance of communication in culture

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Culture (5 of 5)

The Aim of a Cultural Perspective

Culture influences interpersonal communication:

What you say to yourself

How you talk with others

Cultural understanding helps you communicate effectively from those who are culturally different from you

Cultural Evolution vs. Cultural Relativism

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VIEWPOINTS Cultural Evolution and
Cultural Relativism

Cultural evolution (often called social Darwinism) holds that much as the human species evolved from earlier life forms to Homo sapiens, cultures also evolve. Under this new view, some cultures may be considered advanced and others primitive. Most scholars reject this view, however, because the judgments that distinguish one culture from another have no basis in science and are instead based on individual values and preferences. Cultural relativism, on the other hand, holds that all cultures are different but that no culture is either superior to any other.

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9

Cultural Differences (1 of 12)
2.2 Explain and give examples of the seven major ways cultures differ from one another.

It is important to understand how cultures differ and how these differences influence communication.

Cultural distinctions

Individualist or Collectivist Orientation

High Context or Low Context

Power Structure

Masculinity-Femininity

Tolerance for Ambiguity

Long-term and Short-term Orientation

Indulgence and Restraint

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10

Cultural Differences (2 of 12)

Individualist and Collectivist Cultures

Individualist Culture

Responsibility for the individual

Focus on individual goals

Success measured by individual accomplishment

Competitive

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individualist culture – you’re responsible for yourself and perhaps your immediate family

collectivist culture – you’re responsible for the entire group

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Cultural Differences (3 of 12)

Individualist and Collectivist Cultures

Collectivist Culture

Responsibility for the entire group

Focus on group goals

Success measured on contributions to the whole

Face-saving

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face-saving: maintaining a positive public self-image

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VIEWPOINTS Men, Women, and Culture

It’s been argued that in the United States women are more likely to view themselves as interdependents, having a more collectivist orientation, whereas men are more likely to view themselves as independents, having a more individualist orientation.

Does your experience support this? What implications do you see for the workplace?

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13

Cultural Differences (4 of 12)

High- & Low-Context Cultures

High-Context Culture

Emphasis on information is in the person

Collectivist

Personal relationships

Oral agreements

Messages can be vague because of shared knowledge

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High-context cultures place a great deal of emphasis on the information that is in the

context or in the person.

Low-context cultures place more emphasis on the information that is explicitly stated in verbal messages or, in formal transactions, in written (contract) form.

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Cultural Differences (5 of 12)

High- & Low-Context Cultures

Low-Context Culture

Emphasis on the information that is explicit in words, written messages

Individualist

Rely on nonverbal cues

Messages are direct and specific

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15

Cultural Differences (6 of 12)

Masculine Cultures

Men valued for

Aggressiveness

Material success

Strength

Clear distinction of gender roles

Ambition, Assertiveness, Competitive

Win-Lose Conflict Strategies

Feminine Cultures

Women valued for

Modesty

Focus on quality of life

Tenderness

Less distinction between the gender roles

Focus on interpersonal relationships

Win-Win Conflict Strategies

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Cultural Differences (7 of 12)

Masculine and Feminine Cultures

Values for men AND women

Modesty

Concern for Relationships

Quality of Life

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Cultural Differences (8 of 12)

High- & Low- Power-Distance Cultures

High-Power-Distance Culture

Power held by a few

Ordinary citizens have less power

Direct confrontation is viewed negatively

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Cultural Differences (9 of 12)

High- & Low- Power-Distance Cultures

Low-Power-Distance Culture

Power is more evenly distributed

Equality that is consistent with assertive behavior

How could this difference impact the classroom environment? Relationships?

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19

Cultural Differences (10 of 12)

High-Ambiguity Tolerant Culture

Uncertainty normal and expected

Comfortable with the unknown

Minimize the importance of rules for relationships and communication

Okay with vague or ambiguous details

Low-Ambiguity Tolerant Culture

Avoid uncertainty

Want details and specifics

Uncertainty is seen as a threat

Clear rules for communication and relationships

Timelines are important

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VIEWPOINTS The Cultural Defense

Consider these two cases:

(1) A Chinese immigrant discovers that his wife has been unfaithful. In a rage, he kills his wife. His defense was that this is the way his culture has taught him to react to infidelity.

(2) An Iraqi family flees to the United States to avoid a dictator and while in the United States their daughters (ages 13 and 14) are wed to Iraqi men in their 20’s, and their parents are charged with child abuse and delinquency of a minor.

Their defense was that they were simply following Iraqi tradition which permits marriages of young girls of this age.

If you were on the jury listening to these two cases, how would you respond? How do you feel about “cultural defenses” Are there some you’d accept and others you would not?

21

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21

Cultural Differences (11 of 12)

Long-Term Orientation Culture

Importance of future

Planning and preparing future results

Short-Term Orientation Culture

Focus on the past and present

Expect quick results

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Cultural Differences (12 of 12)

Indulgence Cultures

Emphasize gratification of desires

Focus on fun and enjoying life

Life control

Leisure

Value individual desire

Great importance on friendships.

Describe health as “very good”

Restraint Cultures

Limit gratification

Value on thrift

Social norms regulate and reinforce

Focus on group social norms

Have higher percentage of people who are cynical and pessimistic

Significantly higher rates of death due to cardiovascular diseases

23

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Improving Intercultural Communication
(1 of 9)
2.3 Define intercultural communication, and explain the guidelines for effective intercultural communication.

Communication between persons who have different cultural beliefs, values, or ways of behaving

All messages have unique cultural context that influences their content and form

Messages are interpreted based on our cultural filters

Figure 2.2 A Model of Intercultural Communication

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24

Improving Intercultural Communication
(2 of 9)

Prepare Yourself

Reduce Your Ethnocentrism

Confront Your Stereotypes

Be Mindful

Recognize Differences

Adjust Your Communication

Recognize Culture Shock

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25

Improving Interpersonal Communication (3 of 9)

Prepare Yourself

Learn about the other culture

View a “realistic” film

Read

Scan magazines and websites

Talk with others

Recognize and face fears

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26

VIEWPOINTS Cultural Imperialism

The theory of cultural imperialism argues that certain developed countries, such as those of North American and Western Europe, dominate the cultures of countries importing their products, especially their Internet and television.

What do you think of the influence that television and social media have on the native cultures throughout the world? How do you evaluate this trend?

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27

Improving Intercultural Communication (4 of 9)

Reduce Your Ethnocentrism

Tendency to see others and their behaviors through your own cultural filters and evaluate your own as superior

Avoid ethnocentrism

See others as different, not superior or inferior

Be aware of cultural blinders

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Ethnocentrism is the tendency to see others and their behaviors through your own cultural filters, often as distortions of your own behaviors.

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Improving Intercultural Communication (5 of 9)

Confront Your Stereotypes

A fixed impression of a group of people

Barriers caused by stereotypes:

Ignoring the unique characteristics of an individual

Fail to benefit from an individual’s special contributions

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A sociological or psychological stereotype is a fixed impression of a group of people.

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Improving Intercultural Communication (6 of 9)

Be Mindful

Use intellectual scrutiny

Use logic

Use critical thinking

Avoid being “mindless”

Recognize that other cultural systems may be different, but not superior or inferior

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30

Improving Intercultural Communication (7 of 9)

Recognize Differences

Differences between you and culturally different people

Differences within the culturally different group

Differences in meaning

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31

VIEWPOINTS Cultural Sensitivity
and Differences

Intercultural communication is especially important in political discussions between members of widely differing cultures. Take a look at one of the online news pages, especially the “world” section.

How many news items can you identify that would profit from an understanding of intercultural communication? In what specific ways might intercultural communication competence be of value?

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32

Improving Intercultural Communication (8 of 9)

Adjust Your Communication

Interpersonal communication only takes place to the extent there is a shared system of symbols

Be aware of and adjust your message and symbols

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Improving Intercultural Communication (9 of 9)

Recognize Culture Shock

The psychological reaction you experience when you encounter a different culture

Stage One: The Honeymoon

Stage Two: The Crisis

Stage Three: The Recovery

Stage Four: The Adjustment

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culture shock : the psychological reaction you experience when you encounter a culture very different from your own.

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Interpersonal Messages
Fourth Edition

Joseph A. DeVito

Chapter 4

Listening in Interpersonal Communication

This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:

any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;

preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;

any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

1

Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

4.1 Define listening and its five stages and describe the ways you can increase listening accuracy at each of these stages.

4.2 Describe the four major barriers to effective listening, and explain how you can improve effectiveness in your own listening.

4.3 Define the four style of listening and explain how each may be used effectively.

4.4 Explain the major cultural and gender differences found in listening and their influence on interpersonal listening.

2

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2

The Stages of Listening (1 of 6)
4.1 Define listening and its five stages and describe the ways you can increase listening accuracy at each of these stages.

Five Stages of Listening

Receiving

Understanding

Remembering

Evaluating

Responding

Figure 4.1 The Five Stages of Listening

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3

The Stages of Listening (2 of 6)

Receiving

Speakers send both verbal and nonverbal messages

Receive messages more effectively by:

Focusing attention

Eliminating interruptions

Avoiding assumptions

Improving communication between people with and without hearing disorders

Set up a comfortable context

Avoid overlapping speech

Use common terms

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4

VIEWPOINTS Hedging

Research shows that hedging reflects negatively on both male and female speakers when it indicates a lack of certainty or conviction resulting from some inadequacy on the speaker’s part (Pearson, West, & Turner, 1995). The hedging will be more positively received, however, if listeners feel it reflects the speaker’s belief that tentative statements are the only kinds a person can reasonably make.

What have your experiences been with hedging? How do you respond when someone uses a hedge? How do others respond when you use hedges?

5

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5

The Stages of Listening (3 of 6)

Understanding

For better understanding:

Consider the speaker’s point of view

Rephrase or paraphrase

Ask questions

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6

The Stages of Listening (4 of 6)

Remembering

Effective listening involves ability to recall details

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

Strengthening long-term memory

Focus on central ideas

Organize and categorize

Unite new and old information

Repeat names and key concepts

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short-term memory: the memory you use to remember information you need immediately or temporarily

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VIEWPOINTS False Memory Syndrome

The term false memory syndrome refers to a phenomenon in which you “remember” past experiences that never actually occurred (Loftus, 2004), a situation depicted here from the 1995 movie Indictment: The McMartin Trial. Most of the studies of false memory syndrome have focused on erroneous recollections of abuse and other traumatic experiences. Sometimes these false memories are implanted by therapists and interviewers, whose persistent questioning over a period of time can create such a realistic scenario that you come to believe these things actually occurred (Porter, Brit, Yuille, & Lehman, 2000).

In what other ways can false memory syndrome occur and create problems?

8

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false memory syndrome: refers to a phenomenon in which you “remember” past experiences that never actually occurred

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The Stages of Listening (5 of 6)

Evaluating

Judging messages in some way

Evaluate effectively by:

Avoid evaluating until you understand the speaker’s point of view

Assume the speaker is a person of goodwill

Distinguish facts from opinions

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9

The Stages of Listening (6 of 6)

Responding

Occurs in two forms:

Responses made while the speaker is talking (backchanneling cues)

Responses made after the speaker has stopped talking

Express support and understanding

Use varied cues that say “I’m listening”

Use your own responses

Avoid the common problem-causing listening responses

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backchanneling cues: messages (words and gestures) that let the speaker know you’re paying attention, as when you nod in agreement or say, “I see” or “Uh-huh.”

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Listening Barriers (1 of 4)
4.2 Describe the four major barriers to effective listening, and explain how you can improve effectiveness in your own listening.

Distractions: Physical and Mental

Physical barriers include hearing impairment, noisy environment, or loud music

Mental distractions include distracting thoughts

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11

Listening Barriers (2 of 4)

Biases and Prejudices

You hear what the speaker is saying through stereotypes

Occurs in a wide variety of situations

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12

Listening Barriers (3 of 4)

Lack of Appropriate Focus

Stay focused on main ideas

Wait until the speaker is finished before formulating a response

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13

Listening Barriers (4 of 4)

Premature Judgment

Assuming you know what the speaker is going to say

Drawing conclusions or judgments on incomplete evidence

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14

VIEWPOINTS Listening Barriers

The four barriers discussed here are certainly not the only ones that get in the way of effective listening.

What other types of barriers can you identify?

Put differently, in what types of interpersonal situations do you have difficulty listening?

15

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15

Four Listening Styles (1 of 5)
4.3 Define the four styles of listening and explain how each may be used effectively

Listening is situational

Adjust listening based on:

Your purposes

Your knowledge of an relationship to the other person

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16

Four Listening Styles (2 of 5)

Empathic Listening

Important to adjust your empathic and objective focus

Be careful to avoid creating “dividing lines” or losing control over your feelings

Do:

See from the speaker’s point of view

Engage in equal, two-way conversation

Seek to understand thoughts and feelings

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empathic listening: to understand on an emotional level the meanings of the other person

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Four Listening Styles (3 of 5)

Polite Listening

Often thought of as exclusive function of speaker

May also be signaled through listening

Supporting speaker’s positive and negative face needs include:

Avoid interrupting the speaker

Give supportive listening clues

Show empathy with speaker

Maintain eye contact

Give positive feedback

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polite listening: to be supportive and encourage the speaker to communicate

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Four Listening Styles (4 of 5)

Critical Listening

Exercise critical evaluation or judgment

Keep an open mind

Avoid filtering out or oversimplifying complex messages

Recognize your own biases

Combat the tendency to sharpen

Focus on both verbal and nonverbal messages

Watch out for language fallacies

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critical listening: to separate truth from falsehood, accuracy from inaccuracy

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VIEWPOINTS Politeness in Social Media

Much of the thinking and research on listening and politeness has focused on them as face-to-face communication skills.

How would you describe listening politeness on the phone or on social network sites? Are the same principles applicable, or do we need an entirely different set to describe social networking listening politeness?

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20

Four Listening Styles (5 of 5)

Active Listening

One of most important communication skills

Functions:

Check understanding

Acknowledge and accept speaker’s feelings

Stimulates speaker to explore feelings and thoughts

Techniques of active listening

Paraphrase the speaker’s meaning

Express understanding of the speaker’s feelings

Ask questions

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active listening: to check your understanding, to acknowledge your acceptance of the other person’s feelings, and to stimulate the speaker to talk about as needed

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Listening, Culture, and Gender (1 of 2)
4.4 Explain the major cultural and gender differences found in listening and their influence on interpersonal listening

Culture and Listening

Culture in which you were raised will influence listening in:

Language and speech (idolect)

Direct and indirect speech

Accents

Nonverbal differences (display rules)

Feedback

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direct speech: say what you mean and mean what you say

indirect speech: emphasizes politeness and maintaining a positive public image rather than literal truth

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VIEWPOINTS Gender Differences

A popular belief is that men listen in the way they do to prove themselves superior and that women listen as they do to ingratiate themselves. Although there is no evidence to show that these beliefs are valid, they persist in th