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Question 1

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Audiences, bystanders and crowds are to __ as coworkers, sports teams, and study groups are to __.

Select one:

a. primary groups; collectives

b. collectives; categories

c. collectives; social groups

d. social groups; personal groups

e. secondary groups; primary groups

Question 2

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If one wishes to draw a cause-effect conclusion, then one should use ___ methods.

Select one:

a. case study

b. structured

c. observational

d. experimental

e. self-report

Question 3

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According to the text, humans affiliate because

Select one:

a. of their need for belonging.

b. they are instinctively gregarious.

c. isolation is a negative, painful experience.

d. all of the above are possible reasons.

Question 4

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Studies of inclusion and exclusion indicate that

Select one:

a. people do not react negatively to rejection from groups.

b. individuals who respond negatively to exclusion tend to be insecure.

c. inclusion-exclusion is a continuum rather than an either-or process.

d. people, when excluded by a group, tend to rate the group more positively than people who are accepted by the group.

Question 5

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As group size decreases, the concept of homophily suggests that the most likely member to leave the group is

Select one:

a. the member that is the least similar to other group members.

b. the individual who fails in the leadership position.

c. the member who started the most conflict within the group.

d. members who membership in the group is above their CL.

Question 6

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Individuals raised in Western cultures, compared to those from Eastern cultures, tend to

Select one:

a. Draw more fine-grained distinctions between different types of groups.

b. Stress group-level processes more than individual level processes.

c. Attribute individual's actions to personal qualities rather than group-level processes.

d. Stress collective, group-level identity more so than individualize sources of identity.

Question 7

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Dale, who is outgoing but not exceptionally bright, is best friends with Chip, who is a straight "A" student but rather shy. Their relationship supports the ___ hypothesis.

Select one:

a. similarity

b. balancec

c. complementarity

d. reward

Question 8

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Individuals who live in New York are called New Yorkers. New Yorkers are

Select one:

a. a norm.

b. a planned group.

c. a category.

d. an emergent group.

e. an interaction.

Question 9

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A police task force working to reduce violent crime experienced conflict initially, but then it became better organized and more effective until, after several years, it disbanded. The task force's development is consistent with a ___ model.

Select one:

a. hierarchical phase

b. successive-stage

c. cyclical

d. balance

e. punctuated equilibrium

Question 10

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Like many groups, the students didn't get much done until one week before the end of the semester-at which time the group, out of panic, started working at a furious pace. This group's development is consistent with a ___ model.

Select one:

a. hierarchical phase

b. successive-stage

c. cyclical

d. balance

e. punctuated equilibrium

Question 11

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Alice has just been hired by the Acme Controls Company, but she hasn't been trained. Therefore, she has little idea what her duties are. She is experiencing

Select one:

a. role ambiguity.

b. interrole conflict.

c. differentiation conflict.

d. intrarole conflict.

e. role drain.

Question 12

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If you are a high status person in a hierarchically organized group, most likely

Select one:

a. you will initiate more communications than a low status person.

b. you will receive few communications from equal status persons.

c. you will be more dissatisfied with your position in the group.

d. the communications you receive from lower status persons will be negative.

Question 13

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Interdependence, a key quality of groups, requires

Select one:

a. all members of the group influence each other equally.

b. members' outcomes depend, in part, on the actions of others in the group.

c. influence is reciprocal, in the sense that if A influences B, then B influences A.

d. group members share a common goal.

Question 14

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Shannon takes her family to church on Sunday. She makes sure that her family sits quietly during mass. She believes that religion will teach her children strong moral values. Shannon's family is a(n)

Select one:

a. primary group.

b. social group.

c. self-organizing group.

d. essential group.

e. category.

Question 15

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The person who says ___ is committing the "group fallacy."

Select one:

a. I don't believe in groups.

b. Groups substantially influence individual members.

c. The group became so upset that it turned against its own leader.

d. Membership in a collective can influence individual members' sense of identity.

e. The actions of all are equivalent to the action of each one.

Question 16

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A researcher investigates the relationship between cohesiveness and team performance by studying the 1960 Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team. This method is called

Select one:

a. experimentation.

b. self-report.

c. case study.

d. correlational.

e. observation.

Question 17

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The stages in Tuckman's group development model are, in order,

Select one:

a. storming, forming, norming, conforming, adjourning.

b. forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning.

c. forming, norming, storming, performing, adjourning.

d. forming, storming, conforming, performing, adjourning.

Question 18

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According to Hofstede, in cultures marked by high levels of ___ members tend to act independently of one another.

Select one:

a. long-term orientation

b. masculinity

c. competition

d. individualism

e. emotionality

Question 19

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Correlational studies, relative to experiments

Select one:

a. do not yield much information about cause-effect relationships.

b. are often distorted by the Hawthorne effect.

c. require excessive manipulation of the group situation.

d. do not provide an index of the magnitude of the relationship between variables.

Question 20

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Dana is deciding which of two groups to join. To make her decision, Dana makes lists of the positives and the negatives of each. After looking over the list, she decides to join the group with the most appealing characteristics. This decision is most consistent with ___ theory.

Select one:

a. systems

b. social exchange

c. observational

d. motivational

e. autocratic

Question 21

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I believe that groups work best when the members can set their own goals, for they become energized when they pick their own tasks and experience heightened enjoyment. My theory has elements of several theoretical approaches, but if you focus on the theory's most CENTRAL assumptions you would call it a(n) ___ theory.

Select one:

a. motivational and emotion

b. systems

c. cognitive

d. biological

e. analytic

Question 22

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After taking a job in a library Jill not only begins to think of herself as a librarian, but she also begins to take on the characteristics and qualities commonly attributed to librarians. Jill is engaged in

Select one:

a. overcategorization.

b. self-stereotyping.

c. altercasting.

d. self-selection.

e. social comparison.

Question 23

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A line of people waiting to get into the movies is an example of a

Select one:

a. primary group.

b. collective.

c. personal group.

d. category.

e. social group.

Question 24

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I rarely participate in group activities, for I prefer to let members make all the decisions for themselves without input from me. I am a(n) ___ leader.

Select one:

a. autocratic

b. democratic

c. authoritarian

d. laissez-faire

e. transforming

Question 25

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Laboratory studies of group phenomena can be criticized most for

Select one:

a. failing to maintain control over irrelevant factors.

b. studying behavior in relatively contrived settings.

c. yielding correlational conclusions.

d. demonstrating cause-effect relationships.

Question 26

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In Lewin's formula B = f(P,E), P stands for ___ and E stands for ___.

Select one:

a. person; environment

b. personality; external factors

c. past; environment

d. person; evolution

e. personality; entitativity

Question 27

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Drawing on sociometer theory, who is most likely to NOT suffer due to exclusion from a group?

Select one:

a. an individual who is shunned

b. a person who is ostracized from a computer-based group

c. a individual who is not asked to speak when she joins a group psychotherapy group

d. an explorer who is left behind by other members of the party

e. a person who is dropped, at random, from membership on a jury

Question 28

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Susan recently logged on to a chat room and started "chatting." However, no one in the online group paid any attention to her. Studies on cyberostracism suggest that Susan will most likely

Select one:

a. sit quietly and wait until someone talks to her.

b. leave and start a new group by herself.

c. increase the amount of communication to the group.

d. stop going online.

e. exhibit no change in her behavior.

Question 29

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The concept of collectivism assumes the self

Select one:

a. is based on our group's definition of who we are.

b. is a collection of individual components.

c. contains memories and qualities that are collected during our lifetimes.

d. is embedded in and inseparable from other people.

e. does not exist.

Question 30

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The largest percentage of Americans, when surveyed about the groups they belong to, reported membership in ___ -related groups.

Select one:

a. work

b. sports

c. hobby

d. educational

e. church

Question 31

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Denise thought the test was easy, but she was not sure. So, after she turns in her paper she talks to her friends to see what they thought about the test. Denise's actions best illustrate

Select one:

a. need for affiliation.

b. need for power.

c. need for intimacy.

d. extraversion.

e. the social comparison processes.

Question 32

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Dimitry focuses more on the relationship aspect of his connection to others. His attitudes and values are oriented around maintaining these connections. Dimitry is high in

Select one:

a. need for control

b. task orientation

c. entravision

d. introversion

e. relationality

Question 33

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Donald decides that he wants to do more for the group. He starts helping other people by taking on some of their work and organizing funding raisers to raise money. Donald is providing ___ support for the group and its members.

Select one:

a. exploitation

b. emotional

c. information

d. instrumental

e. spiritual

Question 34

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I try to work my way into the leadership positions and I enjoy exercising my authority over other people. I am

Select one:

a. high in need for Affiliation.

b. experiencing sibling rivalry.

c. low in expressed affection.

d. high in need for Power.

Question 35

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Social comparison theory argues people join groups because of

Select one:

a. their need for information concerning social reality.

b. their dependence on others for the satisfaction of their esteem needs.

c. evolutionary pressures.

d. the attractiveness of group members.

Question 36

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A multicomponent approach to cohesion assumes

Select one:

a. cohesion is based primarily on interpersonal attraction.

b. there is no single sufficient condition that, when present, will generate group cohesion.

c. the concept of cohesion is, itself, not cohesive.

d. a group where members no longer feel emotionally connected to one another but are still proud to be members does not qualify as being cohesive.

e. a highly productive group marked by high levels of integrated teamwork but where members dislike each other does not qualify as being cohesive.

Question 37

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Comparing ourselves to others who are performing better than we are ___, but comparing ourselves to others who are performing worse than we are ___.

Select one:

a. gives us hope; raises our self-esteem

b. raises our self-esteem; gives us hope

c. is downward social comparison; is upward social comparison

d. is healthy; is unhealthy

Question 38

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Ed tends toward collectivism, rather than individualism. He will likely

Select one:

a. prefer to split $100 earned by the group by giving more to members who worked harder.

b. describe himself as critical, extraverted, and intelligent rather than a Steeler's fan or a family man.

c. describe himself in terms of roles and relations rather than personal attributes.

d. live in the U.S. rather than an Asian country.

e. express a lack of respect for authorities.

Question 39

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Cohesion enhances group performance when

Select one:

a. it increases tolerance for other members' shortcomings.

b. the norms of the group support high rates of productivity.

c. groups are working on cognitive, rather than physical, tasks.

d. leaders expect more from cohesive groups.

e. based on attraction rather than task commitment.

Question 40

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Elizabeth measures how, over time, groups change and evolve. She studies

Select one:

a. group development.

b. cognitive dissonance.

c. group cohesion.

d. group synergy.

Question 41

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For a group to have high collective efficacy

Select one:

a. the leader must feel that the group is capable of success.

b. group members must feel they can do what it takes to succeed.

c. members must be confident.

d. members must work well together.

Question 42

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concepts of need for affiliation and need for power are similar in that both assume that

Select one:

a. people join groups to satisfy basic needs.

b. most people need to control other people.

c. we are attracted to people who have similar needs.

d. social factors, and not personality factors, influence group formation.

Question 43

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Liking for the group is ___ cohesion, whereas high levels of goal-focused team work is ___ cohesion.

Select one:

a. emotional; team

b. social; structural

c. social; task;

d. attraction; performing

e. personal attraction; social attraction

Question 44

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The group is high in ___ cohesion, for all the members are personally committed to doing their part to help the group reach its goals.

Select one:

a. attraction

b. social

c. collective

d. task

e. associative

Question 45

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Which statement is most accurate?

Select one:

a. Cohesive groups are superior to noncohesive groups.

b. Cohesive groups invariably outperform noncohesive groups.

c. Members of cohesive groups are more satisfied with membership, but they are more likely to leave the group.

d. Cohesive groups can avoid the conflict stage of group development.

e. Cohesiveness intensifies group processes.

Question 46

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According to the text, ___ norms include an evaluative component.

Select one:

a. descriptive

b. injunctive

c. expectational

d. preferential

e. base-rate

Question 47

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Many college students drink unhealthy amounts of alcohol, because they mistakenly assume that (a) everyone drinks alcohol and (b) everyone drinks more than they actually do. This bias is known as

Select one:

a. the fundamental attribution error.

b. pluralistic ignorance.

c. group attribution error.

d. normative drift.

e. the autokinetic effect.

Question 48

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Balance theory, developed by Fritz Heider, assumes that groups tend toward a balanced state in that

Select one:

a. leaders naturally seek out those who wish to be led.

b. unattractive group members tend to like attractive group members.

c. attraction is determined by the person rather than the group.

d. roles are apportioned based on fairness, when possible.

e. liking tends to be reciprocal.

Question 49

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Given the relationship between network position and satisfaction, the majority of the group members will be more satisfied when working in a ___ network.

Select one:

a. centralized

b. decentralized

c. hierarchical

d. one-way

Question 50

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I'm confused. As group leader, some people think I should maintain strict control, while others feel that I should say as little as possible. I'm experiencing

Select one:

a. role ambiguity.

b. interrole conflict.

c. differentiation conflict.

d. intrarole conflict.

e. role drain.

Question 51

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What one concept can explain the following facts: members of certain groups, such as sororities, sometimes develop similar eating disorders; the judgments of people estimating the movement of light in a dark room tend to converge; students at Bennington College expressed more liberal attitudes the longer they attended school; students drinking more alcohol than they should.

leadership

Select one:

a. norms

b. personality

c. development

d. leadership

e. autokinesis

Question 52

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Which one is NOT a characteristic of norms?

Select one:

a. Shared among group members, rather than personal idiosyncratic beliefs.

b. Describe how most members act, feel, and think.

c. Set the standards for expected behaviors.

d. Often taken for granted by members.

e. Flexible and change rapidly over time as new members join the group.

Question 53

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The idea of entitativity suggests a people will be referred to as a "group" if the aggregate

Select one:

a. is structured in some way.

b. is passive rather than dynamic.

c. has very few members.

d. has only one goal.

e. is perceived to be a single, unified whole.

Question 54

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As a scientist, you want to know if leaders who are authoritarian get more productivity out of their followers than do leaders who are democratic. You should

Select one:

a. ask politicians for their opinions on the matter.

b. consult experts on business management.

c. ask Kurt Lewin what he thinks.

d. conduct a study of the relationship between leadership and productivity.

e. ask several group members what they think.

Question 55

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I believe that when people work in groups each member mentally sizes up every other member, and then lets those who seemed to know the most about the task at hand, or just seemed generally knowledgeable about groups, to have a larger say in the group's process. This theory probably has elements of several theoretical approaches, but if you focus on the theory's most CENTRAL assumptions you would call it a ___ theory.

Select one:

a. motivational

b. behavioral

c. systems

d. cognitive

e. biological

Question 56

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According to Leary's sociometer model, self-esteem

Select one:

a. is an indicator of self-love.

b. is based on self-appraisals of worth.

c. is an internal signal that warns of possible exclusion.

d. rises and falls with each success and each failure.

e. is created by individuals, rather than by groups.

Question 57

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I have substantial ___ because I am linked to many individuals and groups through an extensive network of interpersonal relationships.

Select one:

a. social loneliness

b. social capital

c. belongingness

d. social extrapolation

e. dynamic inclusion

Question 58

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An exchange theory of group formation suggests that

Select one:

a. people like to "exchange" their groups for new ones every so often.

b. when people join groups they exchange their self for the collective self.

c. once a change stabilizes it becomes an exchange.

d. groups form when members invest in the relationship by giving one another rewards.

Question 59

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Conflict is to the ____ stage as increased cohesion is to the ____ stage.

Select one:

a. storming; norming

b. trouble; conforming

c. disorientated; orientation

d. storming; conforming

e. stress; relaxation

Question 60

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The encourager, harmonizer, and compromiser are examples of ___ roles.

Select one:

a. task

b. relationship

c. individual

d. congruent

e. diffuse