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Evaluate the ways in which the Congress of Vienna uprooted the progress of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars?
Age of Revolutions
Napoleon and the Congress System
Napoleons Rise to Power
The Directory under the new Constitution gave a lot of power to the military.
Assisted the antimonarchist coup detat in 1797 and saved the Republic.
Early on Napoleon was very successful.
1797 – Treaty of Campo Formio controlled Switzerland and Italy.
1799 – Invaded Egypt
State of France
The Directory encounters problems
– Economic Crisis
– The International War
Constitution of Year VIII – Abbe Sieyes employed Napoleon to stage a second coup detat.
confidence from below, power from above.
1799 – Napoleon became First Consul
1799-1804 – Napoleon secured power as the ruling figure in France.
Napoleon began his consulate by establishing peace among his enemies.
He weeded out any opposition and took absolute rule.
Protector of the Republic?
Quickly Napoleon established a balance of power by applying democratic principles, such as:
Destroyed Feudal Privileges
Security of Property for the Middle Class
Universal Male Suffrage
1801- Treaty of Luneville took Austria out of the war.
1802- Treaty of Amiens brought peace to Europe, including Britain.
1802 – Concordat in Rome brought peace with the pope and the church.
1802 – Napoleon became Consul for Life and then led France into a codification of laws.
1804 – Napoleonic Code helped establish a Dynasty.
Emperor Napoleon I – December 2, 1804.
Between 1804 -1807, Napoleon wraps the European Continent in war.
Very successful on land, but no match for Britain on the sea.
October 21, 1805 Battle of Trafalgar Horatio Nelsen
Napoleon lost the Battle of Trafalgar to the British.
He lost all hopes of invading Britain
Launched an Economic War on Britain and continued his march across Europe.
On land, Napoleons army was brilliant.
Battle of Austerlitz 1805 made Napoleon master of all German lands.
Treaty of Pressburg made Napoleon the king of Italy.
Battle of Austerlitz
In July 1806, Napoleon organized the Confederation of the Rhine and dissolved the HRE.
Battle of Jena 1806, he defeats the Prussians
By 1807, Napoleon was master of all German Lands.
Treaty of Tilsit July 7, 1807 made Prussia and Russia allies of Napoleon.
A Dictator of Sorts
Napoleon transformed Europe into a Continental System.
Instituted Reforms wherever he ruled.
-Freed serfs and peasants
Most of German lands were subject to the rule of Napoleon.
Only Prussia governed itself.
Many German Romantics developed a nationalistic spirit that called to resist French Rule.
Prussia feared another defeat like the one at Jena, in 1806.
Instituted internal reforms.
– Political Reform
– Military Reform
Baron von Stein (1757-1831)
Count von Hardenberg (1750-1822)
Europe at War
The Wars of Liberation
Spain – more than any other country resisted French Rule.
Austria – tried to establish a war of revenge, but lost at every chance.
In 1809, Napoleon married the Austrian princess Marie Louise.
Several factors led to the war between France and Russia
1. Breaking the Treaty of Tilsit
2. Failed marriage negotiations
3. The Continental System
By 1810, Tsar Alexander declared war on the French Empire.
A Dead End War
Napoleons Grand Army greatly outnumbered the Russians.
The invasion, however, did not favor Napoleon.
Russians employed a scratch and burn tactic.
Battle of Borodino
Metternich rounded up a coalition to rid Napoleon of European dominance.
Russia, Prussia, Austria, & Britain
Battle of Nations, in 1814 forced Napoleon to abdicate and flee to Elba.
The Congress of Vienna
Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh & Prince Metternich headed the congress.
Treaty of Chaumont March 9, 1814
– Restoration of Bourbons
– Quadruple Alliance
It is our duty, as well as interest, to regard, if we cannot avert, the return of a more contentious order of things .
~R. S. Castlereagh
Louis XVIII agreed to a constitutional monarchy and guaranteed the following:
– an elected legislature
– religious freedom
– The Napoleonic Code
– equality before the law
The Hundred Days
On March 1, 1815, Napoleon returned to France and seized power.
The Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw and went after him.
June 18, 1815 – Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo and sent into exile on St. Helena.
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleons reign following the revolutionary government showed the power of the nationhood, which inspired Europe.
Birth of the Age of Ideologies
Romanticism, Nationalism, Liberalism
Louis XVIII – political realist
Constitutional Monarchy established
Ultraroyalism – White Terror
The belief that a nation is composed of people who are joined by common bonds.
Opposed the Congress of Vienna
The notion of popular sovereignty
The Nation and Nationhood.
Nations on the Rise
Developed a national language that did away with dialects.
The Printed Word
Nationhood as way to bridge together people of an ethnic group.
Nationalists put pressure on Empires
Liberalism grew out of the nineteenth century political turmoil.
Seeped in Enlightenment ideals.
Wanted Constitutions and political freedom.
Political & Economic Goals
Wanted boarder political participation, but not democracy.
Privilege based on wealth and property.
The rising middle-class
The domestic political order among European countries tended to be conservative in form & principle.
Pillars of conservatism were legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches.
Epitome of Conservatism
Opposed the rule of popular sovereignty and economic liberty.
Limited constitutions – power control by monarchies & aristocracies.
The alliance system
Several student groups rise up supporting the cause of nationalism.
Burchenschaften – Germany
Karl Sand 1819-20 became a martyr for the student nationalist groups.
Sand murders Kotzebue
Government officials appointed to each University
No teacher/professor allowed to serve as a government official
Banned secret societies and organizations
Rule of expulsion
Problems in England
Lord Liverpools Ministry & Popular Unrest
Poor Law and Unions
The Peterloo massacre 1819
The Six Acts & Parliamentary Reform
St. Peters Field 1819
Forbade large public meetings
Raised fines for seditious libel
Speedy trial for political agitators
Increased newspaper tax
Prohibited the training of armed groups
Allowed local officials to search homes on suspicion.
The Congress System
1815-1822 European international relations were controlled by congresses.
1815: Vienna Concert of Europe
Congress of Vienna
Metternich wanted to assure that peace in Europe was maintained.
Authority of the monarchies and aristocracies.
Mutual consultation of politics.
The aftermath of the Congress of Vienna sparked a number of opposition uprisings.
Crisis, Revolt, and Revolutions
Reform Movements on both sides liberal and conservative
Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle
Arranged for the withdrawal of the allied army of occupation from France
Admitted France into the concert of Europe.
Congress of Troppau
Summoned by Metternich because of the outbreak of revolution in Spain.
Protocol of Troppau authorized armed intervention into any state that engaged in a revolution.
Review the study guide and study the terms.
1 hour for the exam followed by a short lecture.
Industrial Revolution and Romanticism
Revolutions – Process of Change
Middle Ages > Modernity
Role of the Individual in Society
Background to the Age of Revolutions
Renaissance and Reformation
English Civil War
The process of reasoning and rationalizing the universe led to a series of significant and sudden changes.
Why does the need for change occur in society?
Toward an Industrial Society
Industrialization was one of the final steps in ushering tin change from medieval to modern society.
Great Britain led the charge for the Industrial Revolution.
Society becomes transformed.
Industrialism started in Great Britain in 18th century.
By the turn of the century Britain had successful factories all over the world.
Textiles, ironmaking, shipbuilding, china production.
1733- John Kay invented the fly shuttle allowed one person to operate a loom.
1765- James Hargreaves created the spinning jenny, which spun 16 spindles of thread at a time.
1769 Richard Arkwright applied waterpower to the spinning process.
The most significant development during this time was railway building.
Increased migration and the production of capital goods.
In effect, it brought industrialization at more rapid rate.
Hallmarks of the Railroads
1763 James Watt improved the Newcomen engine and created the steam engine.
Financial banking of Matthew Boulton, they made a fortune.
1820 Georg Stephenson created the Rocket land rail traveling 16 miles per hour.
The Labor Force
Factory workers varied at first most enjoyed a decent wage and comfortable living style.
Few exceptions, such as women and children who were numbered the laboring poor
Proletariat meant the workers of the means of production.
Workers contribute their labor for a wage no longer own the means to production.
The emergence of factories
Factories forces artisans and craftsman to compete for sales.
Confection – less skill, uniform products.
Division of labor increased in the workshop, but devalued the product
During the 1830s, the working class began to take action against the oppression.
Chartism – London Working Mens Association.
Wm. Lovett demanded reform from parliament .but ultimately lost.
Ned Ludd – legendary hero of the Working Man
Origin of British Labor Unions
Fought for rights against the Factory Owners.
The Industrial Revolution also affected the development of families across Europe.
The Cult of True-Womanhood and Domesticity
The Separate Spheres
Coping with Change = Transformative Property
The Prelude 1805
While with an eye made quiet by power of harmony, and the deep power of joy, we see into the life of things
The best laid schemes of mice and men do often go awry and leave us not but grief and pain for promised joy
Clearly the Age of Revolutions ignited change but did the revolutionaries take it too far?
Be able to show and account for how and why the revolutionary movements of 1848 failed.
Specifically connect it to the disappoint felt at the end of the revolutionary movements as seen in Flauberts writing.