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Evaluate the ways in which the Congress of Vienna uprooted the progress of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars?

Age of Revolutions

Napoleon and the Congress System

Napoleon’s Rise to Power

The Directory under the new Constitution gave a lot of power to the military.

Assisted the antimonarchist coup d’etat in 1797 and saved the Republic.

Military Victories

Early on Napoleon was very successful.

1797 – Treaty of Campo Formio controlled Switzerland and Italy.

1799 – Invaded Egypt

State of France

The Directory encounters problems

– Economic Crisis

– The International War

Constitution of Year VIII – Abbe Sieyes employed Napoleon to stage a second coup d’etat.

“confidence from below, power from above.”

The Consulate

1799 – Napoleon became First Consul

1799-1804 – Napoleon secured power as the ruling figure in France.

Napoleon began his consulate by establishing peace among his enemies.

He weeded out any opposition and took absolute rule.

Protector of the Republic?

Quickly Napoleon established a balance of power by applying democratic principles, such as:

Destroyed Feudal Privileges

Security of Property for the Middle Class

Universal Male Suffrage

Treaties

1801- Treaty of Luneville took Austria out of the war.

1802- Treaty of Amiens brought peace to Europe, including Britain.

1802 – Concordat in Rome brought peace with the pope and the church.

Napoleonic Code

1802 – Napoleon became “Consul for Life” and then led France into a codification of laws.

1804 – Napoleonic Code helped establish a Dynasty.

Emperor Napoleon I – December 2, 1804.

The Empire

Between 1804 -1807, Napoleon wraps the European Continent in war.

Very successful on land, but no match for Britain on the sea.

October 21, 1805 – Battle of Trafalgar … Horatio Nelsen

Naval Blunder

Napoleon lost the Battle of Trafalgar to the British.

He lost all hopes of invading Britain

Launched an Economic War on Britain and continued his march across Europe.

Conquering Europe

On land, Napoleon’s army was brilliant.

Battle of Austerlitz 1805 made Napoleon master of all German lands.

Treaty of Pressburg made Napoleon the king of Italy.

Battle of Austerlitz

Political Changes

In July 1806, Napoleon organized the Confederation of the Rhine and dissolved the HRE.

Battle of Jena 1806, he defeats the Prussians

By 1807, Napoleon was master of all German Lands.

Treaty of Tilsit – July 7, 1807 made Prussia and Russia allies of Napoleon.

A Dictator of Sorts

Napoleon transformed Europe into a Continental System.

Instituted Reforms wherever he ruled.

-Napoleonic Code

-Freed serfs and peasants

-social distinctions

German Nationalism

Most of German lands were subject to the rule of Napoleon.

Only Prussia governed itself.

Many German Romantics developed a nationalistic spirit that called to resist French Rule.

Prussian Reform

Prussia feared another defeat like the one at Jena, in 1806.

Instituted internal reforms.

– Political Reform

– Military Reform

Baron von Stein (1757-1831)

Count von Hardenberg (1750-1822)

Europe at War

The Wars of Liberation

Spain – more than any other country resisted French Rule.

Austria – tried to establish a war of revenge, but lost at every chance.

In 1809, Napoleon married the Austrian princess Marie Louise.

Pyrrhic Dance

Several factors led to the war between France and Russia

1. Breaking the Treaty of Tilsit

2. Failed marriage negotiations

3. The Continental System

By 1810, Tsar Alexander declared war on the French Empire.

A Dead End War

Napoleon’s Grand Army greatly outnumbered the Russians.

The invasion, however, did not favor Napoleon.

Russians employed a “scratch and burn” tactic.

Russian Preparation

Battle of Borodino

Moscow, 1812

European Coalition

Metternich rounded up a coalition to rid Napoleon of European dominance.

Russia, Prussia, Austria, & Britain

Battle of Nations, in 1814 forced Napoleon to abdicate and flee to Elba.

The Congress of Vienna

Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh & Prince Metternich headed the congress.

Treaty of Chaumont – March 9, 1814

– Restoration of Bourbons

– Quadruple Alliance

Congressional Policy

“It is our duty, as well as interest, to regard, if we cannot avert, the return of a more contentious order of things….”

~R. S. Castlereagh

Bourbon Restoration

Louis XVIII agreed to a constitutional monarchy and guaranteed the following:

– an elected legislature

– religious freedom

– The Napoleonic Code

– equality before the law

The Hundred Days

On March 1, 1815, Napoleon returned to France and seized power.

The Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw and went after him.

June 18, 1815 – Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo and sent into exile on St. Helena.

Battle of Waterloo

Napoleon’s Legacy

Napoleon’s reign following the revolutionary government showed the power of the nationhood, which inspired Europe.

Birth of the Age of Ideologies

Romanticism, Nationalism, Liberalism

Bourbon Restoration

Louis XVIII – political realist

Constitutional Monarchy established

The “Charter”

Ultraroyalism – White Terror

Nationalism

The belief that a nation is composed of people who are joined by common bonds.

Opposed the Congress of Vienna

The notion of “popular sovereignty”

The Nation and Nationhood.

Nations on the Rise

Developed a “national” language that did away with dialects.

The Printed Word

Nationhood as way to bridge together people of an ethnic group.

Nationalists put pressure on Empires

Liberalism

Liberalism grew out of the nineteenth century political turmoil.

Seeped in Enlightenment ideals.

Wanted Constitutions and political freedom.

Responsible Government

Political & Economic Goals

Wanted boarder political participation, but not democracy.

Privilege based on wealth and property.

The rising middle-class

Laissez-faire Economics

Conservatism

The domestic political order among European countries tended to be conservative in form & principle.

Pillars of conservatism were legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches.

Epitome of Conservatism

Conservative Tenets

Opposed the rule of popular sovereignty and economic liberty.

Limited constitutions – power control by monarchies & aristocracies.

The alliance system

Universities

Several student groups rise up supporting the cause of nationalism.

Burchenschaften – Germany

Karl Sand – 1819-20 became a martyr for the student nationalist groups.

Sand murders Kotzebue

Sand’s Execution

Carlsbad Decrees

Government officials appointed to each University

No teacher/professor allowed to serve as a government official

Banned secret societies and organizations

Rule of expulsion

Problems in England

Lord Liverpool’s Ministry & Popular Unrest

Poor Law and Unions

The Peterloo massacre 1819

The Six Acts & Parliamentary Reform

St. Peter’s Field 1819

Six Acts

Forbade large public meetings

Raised fines for seditious libel

Speedy trial for political agitators

Increased newspaper tax

Prohibited the training of armed groups

Allowed local officials to search homes on suspicion.

The Congress System

1815-1822 European international relations were controlled by congresses.

1815: Vienna “Concert of Europe”

1818: Aix-la-Chapelle

1820: Troppau

1821: Laibach

1822: Verona

Congress of Vienna

Metternich wanted to assure that peace in Europe was maintained.

Authority of the monarchies and aristocracies.

Mutual consultation of politics.

Problems

The aftermath of the Congress of Vienna sparked a number of opposition uprisings.

Crisis, Revolt, and Revolutions

Reform Movements on both sides liberal and conservative

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

Arranged for the withdrawal of the allied army of occupation from France

Admitted France into the concert of Europe.

Congress of Troppau

Summoned by Metternich because of the outbreak of revolution in Spain.

Protocol of Troppau authorized armed intervention into any state that engaged in a revolution.

England opposed.

Next Week

Mid-Term Exam

Review the study guide and study the terms. ‘

1 hour for the exam followed by a short lecture.

Industrial Revolution and Romanticism

Week 7

Modern Age

Revolutions – Process of Change

Middle Ages —> Modernity

Role of the Individual in Society

Social Contract

Background to the Age of Revolutions

Renaissance and Reformation

Scientific Revolution

English Civil War

Enlightenment

Eighteenth Century

The process of reasoning and rationalizing the universe led to a series of significant and sudden changes.

Why does the need for change occur in society?

Toward an Industrial Society

Industrialization was one of the final steps in ushering tin change from medieval to modern society.

Great Britain led the charge for the Industrial Revolution.

Society becomes transformed.

Britain’s Advantage

Commercial Vigor

Transportation

Raw Materials

Labor

Capital

Entrepreneurship

Great Britain

Industrialism started in Great Britain in 18th century.

By the turn of the century Britain had successful factories all over the world.

Textiles, ironmaking, shipbuilding, china production.

Flying Shuttle

1733- John Kay invented the “fly shuttle” allowed one person to operate a loom.

Spinning Jenny

1765- James Hargreaves created the “spinning jenny”, which spun 16 spindles of thread at a time.

Water Power

1769 – Richard Arkwright applied waterpower to the spinning process.

Railways

The most significant development during this time was railway building.

Increased migration and the production of capital goods.

In effect, it brought industrialization at more rapid rate.

Hallmarks of the Railroads

1763 – James Watt improved the Newcomen engine and created the steam engine.

Financial banking of Matthew Boulton, they made a fortune.

1820 – Georg Stephenson created the “Rocket” land rail traveling 16 miles per hour.

The Labor Force

Factory workers varied…at first most enjoyed a decent wage and comfortable living style.

Few exceptions, such as women and children who were numbered the “laboring poor”

Working Class

Proletariat meant the workers of the means of production.

Workers contribute their labor for a wage…no longer own the means to production.

The emergence of factories

Competition

Factories forces artisans and craftsman to compete for sales.

Confection – less skill, uniform products.

Division of labor increased in the workshop, but devalued the product

Political Action

During the 1830s, the working class began to take action against the oppression.

Chartism – London Working Men’s Association.

Wm. Lovett demanded reform from parliament….but ultimately lost.

Luddism

Ned Ludd – legendary hero of the Working Man

Origin of British Labor Unions

Fought for rights against the Factory Owners.

Family Ideals

The Industrial Revolution also affected the development of families across Europe.

The Cult of True-Womanhood and Domesticity

The Separate Spheres

Romanticism

Coping with Change = Transformative Property

William Wordsworth

The Prelude 1805

Lyrical Ballads

“While with an eye made quiet by power of harmony, and the deep power of joy, we see into the life of things”

“The best laid schemes of mice and men do often go awry and leave us not but grief and pain for promised joy”

Clearly the Age of Revolutions ignited change but did the revolutionaries take it too far?

Next Week

Be able to show and account for how and why the revolutionary movements of 1848 failed.

Specifically connect it to the disappoint felt at the end of the revolutionary movements as seen in Flaubert’s writing.