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please check pdfs and word doc.

need total around 10 pages answer.

7-parts HW need be done (1-1.5pages answer for each) total around 10 pages

Part 1: FIRST, read PDF named “CH 4”. THEN, write a 1-page response to the 3 questions

Questions

4-27. Was Charmagne considering the strategic nature of HR planning when she challenged Brian’s “good news” forecast? Discuss.

4-28. How did the involvement in developing the corporate strategic plan assist Charmagne in challenging Brian?

4-29. Strategic planning at all levels of the organization can be divided into four steps. Which step in the strategic planning process did Brian violate?

Part 2: Case Study 1: answering 3 questions on next page. 1-1.5-page answer

FIRST, read pdf named CH 6. THEN… Think about this: Discriminatory bias in hiring and selection has been a significant concern among employers, civil rights advocates, and the legal system, for at least the past 50 years. 

While it doesn’t get much attention in the readings, the Duke Power case was a landmark US Supreme Court decision that led to a number of policy changes that impact employee selection processes today, both in terms of hiring and promotions.

The background: In 1964, Congress passed and President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act.  Under Title VII (title 7) of the Civil Rights Act, discrimination in employment was prohibited, based on race, color, gender, religion, gender and national origin. These are called “protected classes” in HR jargon.


Find details of the case Griggs vs. Duke Power (1971) HERELinks to an external site.
.

Also review a couple cases that came a bit later, with local angles for those of you in St. Louis:

·
McDonnell Douglas vs. Green (1973)Links to an external site.

·
Hazelwood School District vs. U.S. (1977)Links to an external site.

THEN, write a 1-1.5-page response, using the knowledge you have gained from Chapter 6.

Answer the following 3 questions:

1. How do the results of the Duke Power case and subsequent decisions about racial discrimination impact how companies hire, promote, and terminate employees today?

2. If you were working in HR or in management, how would you respond (in conjunction with legal counsel, of course!) to a claim like one of these 3? After all, it is fairly common even now for HR directors and managers to be called to give a deposition on behalf of legal and EEOC / Missouri Commission on Human Rights / City of St Louis Civil Rights Enforcement Agency proceedings to defend the company’s decisions; when the candidate, employee or former employee asserts discrimination in hiring, promotions, or terminations.

3. If you were the supervisor of Willie Griggs or Percy Green II, how would you have initially explained the decision not to promote (in the Duke Power case) or to layoff and not rehire (in the McDonnell Douglas case), when talking to the employee? (Assuming that was a possibility.)

Part 3: Case Study Chapter 10: Benefits 1-1.5-page answer

FIRST, read PDF named “CH 10”, SECOND, briefly review the WorldatWork Total Rewards Model (Links to an external site.)
. https://worldatwork.org/total-rewards (Prompt for this case study continues after the image.)

THEN, write a 1- to 1.5-page response to the following prompt:

Pensions and health insurance are decidedly dull topics for most people. But when you need them, you are really glad they are there!

If you were in charge at your company — or any company you know about — and could start from scratch, based on what you have read, what would you choose?  Why?

1. Defined benefit (traditional pension) or defined contribution (401k, 403b, etc.) retirement plan?

2. Managed-care health plan (HMO, PPO, etc.) or consumer-directed (HSA, FSA, etc.)?

3. Traditional separate vacation and sick leave, or a combined PTO (Paid Time-Off) bank for all types of leave?

Part 4: FIRST, read pdf named CH 11. THEN, write a 1-page response to the questions

Questions 1-page answer

11-20. Why does Angelica have the option of joining or not joining the union? Hint: Nevada is a right-to-work state.

11-21. What are the pros and cons regarding Angelica joining the union?

11-22. How are the other workers likely to react toward Angelica if she chooses not to join? Discuss

Part 5: FIRST, read pdf named “CH7 8”, and the pdf named “HBR Article” about the modern approach to performance appraisal: continuous feedback is replacing the annual review in many corporations.THEN, write a 1-1.5-page response to the following question:

Do you think continuous performance management is an improvement on the traditional annual review process?

Part 6: FIRST, read pdf named “OB CH1-4”. THEN, write a 1-1.5 page response to the Legal/Ethical Challenge on p. 77, “What Should Management Do About an Abusive Supervisor.”

Part 7: FIRST, read PDF named “OB CH5 8 10”. You may also want to read the optional article about employee motivation (Links to an external site.)
. https://www.thebalancecareers.com/motivating-your-staff-in-a-time-of-change-1918767 THEN, write a 1- to 1.5-page response to the Legal/Ethical Challenge on PDF named “OB CH5 8 10” page 79-80: “When Would You Fire the Coach? The President?”


78

1 Describe the strategic planning process.

2 Explain the human resource planning
process.

3 Describe forecasting requirements.

4 Summarize forecasting human resource
availability.

5 Explain what a firm can do when either a
shortage or surplus of workers exists.

6 Describe strategic succession planning in
today’s environment.

7 Describe the types of information required
for job analysis and the reasons for
conducting it.

8 Summarize the types of job analysis
information.

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Improve Your Grade!

Over 10 million students improved their results using the Pearson MyLabs. Visit
mymanagementlab.com for simulations, tutorials, and end-of-chapter problems.

9 Explain the various job analysis methods.

10 Describe the components of a job
description.

11 Explain the Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) and the Occupational
Information Network (O*NET)

12 Summarize job analysis for team
members.

13 Explain how job analysis helps satisfies
various legal requirements.

14 Describe what competencies and
competency modeling are.

15 Summarize job design concepts.

16 Describe the importance of global talent
management.

4 Strategic Planning, Human Resource Planning, and Job Analysis
Chapter ObjeCtives After completing this chapter, students should be able to:

79

Learn It
If your professor has chosen to assign this, go to mymanagementlab.com to see what
you should particularly focus on and to take the Chapter 4 Warm-Up.

The tools we describe in this chapter and in Chapters 5 and 6 provide human resources (HR)
professionals with a foundation to harness the capability of a company’s human capital to its
competitive advantage. Let’s consider a metaphor to bring the opening sentence to life. Take,
for example, your favorite hit movie or television show. Many factors contribute to the show’s
success, which we might measure as the size of enduring viewership and awards recognizing
excellent talent. Perhaps three of the most important factors to determine whether a show
will  be successful are the story line, character development and scripts, and casting actors
into roles.

From an HR standpoint, the story line can be thought of as a strategy to create a distinctive
story that is unique from others, character development and scripts as job analysis and work flow,
and casting requirements as HR planning. We take up these topics in this chapter.

strategic planning process
As discussed in Chapter 1, HR executives are now focusing their attention on how HR
can help the organization achieve its strategic objectives. Thus, HR executives are highly
involved in the strategic planning process. In the past they often waited until the strategic
plan was formulated before beginning strategic planning, which is the process by which
top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they
are achieved.

Strategic planning is an ongoing process that is constantly changing to find a competitive
advantage. At times an organization may see the need to diversify and increase the variety of the

ObjeCtive 4.1

Describe the strategic
planning process.

strategic planning
Process by which top management
determines overall organizational
purposes and objectives and how
they are achieved.

80 Part 2 • Staffing

goods that are made or sold. At other times, downsizing may be required in response to the external
environment. Or the strategic plan may see integration, the unified control of a number of successive
or similar operations, as their driving force. Strategic planning attempts to position the organization
in terms of the external environment. For example, the recent recession showed weakness in the
marketplace for some firms, which led to lower company valuations, increased business failures,
and firms spinning out or selling off their noncore business units. Forward-thinking companies
found opportunities that were not available when business was booming, such as expanding their
company through acquisition.1 Companies always need to look for ways to stay competitive, gain
market share, and be the first to innovate a new product or service.

Strategic planning at all levels of the organization can be divided into four steps: (1) deter-
mination of the organizational mission, (2) assessment of the organization and its environment,
(3) setting of specific objectives or direction, and (4) determination of strategies to accomplish
those objectives (see Figure 4-1). The strategic planning process described here is basically
a derivative of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) framework that
affects organizational performance, but it is less structured.

Mission Determination
The first step in the strategic planning process is to determine the corporate mission. The mission is
a company’s continuing purpose or reason for being. The corporate mission is the sum total of the
organization’s ongoing purpose. Arriving at a mission statement should involve answering questions
such as: What are we in management attempting to do for whom? Should we maximize profit
so shareholders will receive higher dividends or so share price will increase? Or should we empha-
size stability of earnings so employees will remain secure? In the case of not- for-profit companies, is
the focus on extending its humanitarian reach from tragic events in the United States to tragic events
in other countries? Certainly, HR can provide valuable assistance in answering these questions.

There are many other mission possibilities. Mission determination also requires deciding
on the principles on which management decisions will be based. Will the corporation be

mission
Company’s continuing purpose
or reason for being.

MISSION DETERMINATION
Decide what is to be accomplished (purpose)

Determine principles that will guide the effort

OBJECTIVE SETTING

STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION

STRATEGY SETTING
Specifying and documenting corporate–level strategies and planning

Specifying corporate–level objectives that are:
* Challenging, but attainable
* Measurable
* Time specific
* Documented (written)

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
External
Internal

Determining external conditions, threats, and opportunities
Determining competencies, strengths, and weaknesses within the
organization

Figure 4-1
Strategic Planning Process

ChaPter 4 • StrategiC Planning, human reSourCe Planning, and Job analySiS 81

socially responsible and environmentally friendly (sustainability)? Will the company be forth-
right in dealing with its various constituents such as its customers? The answers to these ques-
tions tend to become embedded in a corporate culture and help determine the organizational
mission. Top management expects HR activities to be closely aligned to this mission and
add value toward achieving these goals. The following is a part of General Mills’ corporate
mission:

Our mission at General Mills is Nourishing Lives—making lives healthier, easier and richer.

• We make lives healthier with foods such as yogurt, soups, vegetables and whole grain
breakfast cereals.

• We make lives easier with foods that are simple to prepare—we have hundreds of
products that can be made in less than 15 minutes.

• And whether it’s a cake for a child’s birthday, a savory snack to help unwind after work
or the trimmings for a holiday family meal, we make lives richer with foods to celebrate
special moments.2

General Mills also includes two additional objectives: environmental sustainability (Nourishing
the Future) and community enhancement (Nourishing Communities). For instance, General Mills
uses recycled materials for its product packaging and it regularly contributes money to K–8 educa-
tion, respectively.

Environmental Assessment
Once the mission has been determined, the organization should assess its strengths and weaknesses
in the internal environment and the threats and opportunities from the external environment (often
referred as a SWOT analysis). Making strategic plans involves information flows from both the
internal and the external environments. From inside comes information about organizational com-
petencies, strengths, and weaknesses. Scanning the external environment allows organizational
strategists to identify threats and opportunities, as well as constraints. In brief, the strategy would
be to take advantage of the company’s strengths and minimize its weaknesses to grasp opportuni-
ties and avoid threats. For example, social networking company LinkedIn can capitalize on the
following opportunities, which include the growing adoption of LinkedIn’s recruitment services
among corporations, growing urbanization, changing attitudes toward employment, and increasing
premium subscriptions.3

HR professionals can take advantage of LinkedIn technology and services by connecting
to more candidates who subscribe to LinkedIn than would typically otherwise be the case for
traditional recruitment methods such as career portals on corporate Web sites, campus hiring,
recruitment agencies, and job boards. Also HR professionals are in the best position to identify
workforce strengths and weaknesses. Should the company be considering, for instance, a merger
or acquisition, HR would be able to work with top management to determine whether the present
workforce can be effectively integrated into the workforce of the merged company. For example,
does the workforce of the merged company improve the overall value of the company, or is there
only duplication of talent? Any reorganization affects people and HR professionals must be in
the forefront of people-related matters.

There are always threats that counterbalance opportunities. For example, LinkedIn faces at
least two significant future threats.4 Competitors such as Google and Facebook could challenge
LinkedIn’s success by offering similar services to customers such as mixing social networking
with recruitment services. In addition, although LinkedIn has established a presence in Latin
America, South America, and Asia-Pacific regions, the growth in average revenue per customer
will be much lower than in the United States because of lower purchasing power of countries in
these international regions.

LinkedIn’s revenue challenges are relevant to the work of its HR professionals. In particu-
lar, research and development (R&D) costs and sales and marketing costs are likely to rise.
R&D costs increase when a company is enhancing current services or developing new ones. In
addition, sales and marketing costs stand to increase when a company is expanding its reach to
prospective customers. These activities are likely to translate into stepped up recruitment efforts
for software engineers and sales professionals. As well, establishing competitive compensation
and benefits programs stand to represent a significant challenge.

82 Part 2 • Staffing

In the following Watch It video, learn about iRobot, which is best known for the iRobot
Roomba® vacuum cleaning robot. This product helped to change how people view robots. iRobot
continues to develop robotic products to change the way customers include robots in their daily
life. This video will provide an appreciation of SWOT analysis.

Watch It 1
If your instructor has assigned this, go to MyManagementLab to watch a video titled
iRobot: Competitive Strategy of Home Robots and respond to questions.

Objective Setting
Objectives are the desired end results of any activity. Objectives should have four basic character-
istics: (1) They should be expressed in writing, (2) they should be measurable, (3) they should be
specific as to time, and (4) they should be challenging but attainable. Strategic objectives might
be directed at factors such as profitability, customer satisfaction, financial returns, technological
leadership, and operating efficiency. Objectives should be developed only after a cost–benefit
analysis of each alternative is considered. Because HR professionals are in the people business,
it is difficult to imagine any strategic objective that would not involve them in some manner, and
the LinkedIn example illustrates this point.

Strategy Setting
Strategies can now be developed for accomplishing those objectives. Strategies should be devel-
oped to take advantage of the company’s strengths and minimize its weaknesses to grasp oppor-
tunities and avoid threats. HR professionals should be highly involved in these activities because
the composition of the workforce will certainly influence the strategies chosen. For the sake of
illustration, let’s consider two fundamental strategies: lowest cost and differentiation.

Lowest-cost strategy focuses on gaining competitive advantage by being the lowest-cost
producer of a product or service within the marketplace, while selling the product or service
at a price advantage relative to the industry average. Lowest-cost strategies require aggressive
construction of efficient-scale facilities and vigorous pursuit of cost minimization in such areas
as operations, marketing, and HR.

Ryanair, a low-cost commercial airline based in Ireland, is an excellent illustration of an
organization that pursues a lowest-cost strategy because its management successfully reduced
operations costs. At least four noteworthy decisions have contributed to Ryanair’s goals. First,
Ryanair’s training and aircraft maintenance costs are lower than similar competitors’ costs because
the airline uses only Boeing 737 aircraft. Ryanair enjoys substantial cost savings because it does
not need to buy different curricula for training flight attendants, mechanics, and pilots to learn
about procedures specific to different aircraft makes (e.g., Boeing) and models (e.g., Boeing 747).
Second, newer aircraft sport spartan seats that do not recline, have seat-back pockets, or have life
jackets stowed under the seat (life jackets are stowed elsewhere on Ryanair planes). Not only does
such seating cost less, but it also allows service personnel to clean aircraft more quickly, saving on
labor costs. Third, Ryanair airplanes have one toilet to make room for additional passenger seats.
Fourth, Ryanair passengers are required to carry their luggage to the plane, reducing the costs of
baggage handling.

Companies adopt differentiation strategies to develop products or services that are unique
from those of their competitors. Differentiation strategy can take many forms, including design
or brand image, technology, features, customer service, and price. Differentiation strategies lead
to competitive advantage through building brand loyalty among devoted consumers. Brand-loyal
consumers are less sensitive to price increases, which enables companies to invest in R&D initia-
tives to further differentiate themselves from competing companies.

P&G Corporation manufactures, markets, and distributes a variety of consumer goods prod-
ucts, including dog food. This company successfully pursues a differentiation strategy based
on brand image and price premiums. The company offers two separate dog food lines—Iams, a
super-premium line that is nutritionally well balanced for dogs and that uses high-quality ingre-
dients, and Eukanuba, an ultra-premium line that contains more chicken and vital nutrients than

ChaPter 4 • StrategiC Planning, human reSourCe Planning, and Job analySiS 83

the Iams line, as well as OmegaCOAT Nutritional Science (fatty acids), which promotes shiny
and healthy coats. Together, the Iams and Eukanuba brands appeal to a substantial set of dog
owners. The Iams Company distinguishes Eukanuba from Iams by claiming that Eukanuba deliv-
ers “Extraordinary Nutrition.” The Eukanuba slogan is the company’s basis for brand image. In
addition to brand image, P&G also differentiates its Eukanuba line by charging a price premium.
This price premium has enabled the Iams Company to be an innovator in canine nutrition by
investing heavily in product R&D. Eukanuba was one of the first brands to offer several formulas
to meet the needs of small, medium, and large breeds of dogs according to life stage, activity
level, and particular health conditions.

In the following Watch It video, learn about the online retailer Zappos’ competitive strat-
egy. In many retail sectors, the goal is product differentiation to create brand-loyal customers
and generate pricing power. Companies achieve differentiation through formulating and imple-
menting competitive strategies that define how organizations will compete in their businesses.
Zappo’s strategy is to “be about the very best customer service.”

Employee Roles Associated with Competitive Strategies
Common wisdom and experience tell us that HR professionals must decide which employee
roles are instrumental to the attainment of competitive strategies. Knowledge of these required
roles should enable HR professionals to implement HR tactics that encourage their enactment of
these roles. Of course, HR professionals are responsible for designing and implementing com-
pensation tactics that elicit strategy-consistent employee roles. As we’ve noted in the introduc-
tion, job analysis is a critical tool used by HR professionals to define employee jobs; thus, the
role behavior that is expected of them.

For the lowest-cost strategy, the imperative is to reduce output costs per employee. The
desired employee roles for attaining a lowest-cost strategy include repetitive and predictable
behaviors, a relatively short-term focus, primarily autonomous or individual activity, high con-
cern for quantity of output, and a primary concern for results.

The key employees’ roles for differentiation strategies include highly creative behavior, a
relatively long-term focus, cooperative and interdependent behavior, and a greater degree of risk
taking. Compared with lowest-cost strategies, successful attainment of differentiation strategies
depends on employee creativity, openness to novel work approaches, and willingness to take risks.
In addition, differentiation strategies require longer time frames to provide sufficient opportunity
to yield the benefits of these behaviors.

Strategy Implementation
Once the strategic planning process is complete, the strategy must be implemented. Some people
argue that strategy implementation is the most difficult and important part of strategic manage-
ment. No matter how creative and well formulated the strategic plan, the organization will not
benefit if it is incorrectly implemented. Strategy implementation requires changes in the organiza-
tion’s behavior, which can be brought about by changing one or more organizational dimensions,
including management’s leadership ability, organizational structure, information and control
systems, production technology, and HR.5

LeaderShiP A leader is able to get others to do what he or she wants them to do. Managers must
influence organization members to adopt the behaviors needed for strategy implementation.
Top-level managers seeking to implement a new strategy may find it useful to build coalitions
and persuade others to go along with the strategic plan and its implementation. HR must take
the leadership role in dealing with HR matters. Basically, leadership is used to encourage
employees to adopt supportive behaviors, and when necessary, to accept the required new
values and attitudes.

Watch It 2
If your instructor has assigned this, go to MyManagementLab to watch a video titled
Zappos: Competitive Strategy and respond to questions.

84 Part 2 • Staffing

OrganizatiOnaL Structure A company’s organizational structure is typically illustrated
by its organizational chart. The particular form of structure needed is determined by the needs
of the firm. It may be informal and highly changeable in small, uncomplicated businesses. By
contrast, large, diverse, and complex organizations usually have a highly formalized structure.
But that should not mean the structure is so rigid that it does not change, perhaps even frequently.
Newly formed high-tech companies are most likely to restructure or reorganize frequently, but
even some of the largest Fortune 500 industrial firms such as General Motors and Chrysler have
experienced major reorganizations. Many variations of organizational structures are available for
use today. HR should be in a good position to recommend the most effective structure needed by
the organization.

infOrmatiOn and cOntrOL SyStemS Among the information and control systems are reward
systems; incentives; objectives-oriented systems; budgets for allocating resources; information
systems; and the organization’s rules, policies, and implementations. Certainly, HR should be a
valuable asset in developing and working with these systems. A proper mix of information and
control systems must be developed to support the implementation of the strategic plan.

technOLOgy The knowledge, tools, and equipment used to accomplish an organization’s
assignments comprise its technology. The appropriate level of technology must be found for
proper implementation of the strategic plan. Certainly, technology is revolutionizing how
organizations operate today. This is definitely the case for HR professionals.

human reSOurceS The HR functions must be properly aligned to successfully implement
the strategic plan. HR will be central to understanding the future of an asset that is increasingly
important to the organization—the intellectual and productive capacity of its workforce. In
essence, a proper balance of HR must be developed to support strategy implementation. Once
strategic planning has taken place, HR planning may be developed to help implement the
strategic plan.

human resource planning
human resource planning (workforce planning) is the systematic process of matching the
internal and external supply of people with job openings anticipated in the organization over a
specific period of time. Workforce planning has evolved from a knee-jerk planning undertaking
to a fundamental strategic function. It includes business plan, HR data, and statistical analyses of
those data. It is also incorporated into the business and financial planning process, so it provides
a foundation for a plan that is aligned with the business strategy. As organizations exited the
recent recession, there was evidence that they were becoming more focused on workforce plan-
ning. A recent poll found that 53 percent of the respondents conducted, or planned to conduct, a
strategic workforce planning assessment to identify skills gaps.6

The HR planning process is illustrated in Figure 4-2. Note that strategic planning precedes
HR planning. HR planning has two components: requirements and availability. A requirements
forecast involves determining the number, skill, and location of employees the organization will
need at future dates to meet its goals.

The determination of whether the firm will be able to secure employees with the necessary
skills, and from what sources, is called an availability forecast.

When employee requirements and availability have been analyzed, the firm can determine
whether it will have a surplus or shortage of employees. Ways must be found to reduce the num-
ber of employees if a surplus is projected. If a worker shortage is forecast, the firm must obtain
the proper quantity and quality of workers from outside the organization. In this case, external
recruitment and selection are required.

Because conditions in the external and internal environments can change quickly, the HR
planning process must be continuous. Changing conditions could affect the entire organization,
thereby requiring extensive modification to the forecasts. The recent recession provided a major
challenge for some firms as they raced to develop a downsizing strategy. And, as the economy
improved, plans were made to increase the size of the workforce.

ObjeCtive 4.2

Explain the human resource
planning process.

human resource planning
Systematic process of matching
the internal and external supply
of people with job openings
anticipated in the organization
over a specified period of time.

requirements forecast
Determining the number, skill,
and location of employees the
organization will need at future
dates to meet its goals.

availability forecast
Determination of whether the
firm will be able to secure
employees with the necessary
skills, and from what sources.

ChaPter 4 • StrategiC Planning, human reSourCe Planning, and Job analySiS 85

Human Resource Planning

Forecasting
Human Resource

Availability

Forecasting
Human Resource

Requirements

Strategic Planning

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

Comparing
Requirements

and Availability

Surplus
of

Workers

Restricted Hiring,
Reduced Hours,

Early Retirement,
Layoffs, Downsizing

Demand
=

Supply

No
Action

Shortage of
Workers

Recruitment

Selection

Figure 4-2
the human resource
Planning Process

H r B l o o p e r s

Workforce Planning at Master Cleaners

If your professor has assigned this, go to mymanagementlab.com to complete the HR Bloopers exercise and test your application of these
concepts when faced with real-world decisions.

Master Cleaners provides residential cleaning
services through more than 100 cleaning employees throughout their
geographic area. As the HR manager hired just more than a year
ago, Jack Potts has worked hard to establish many of their HR prac-
tices. As the company’s first HR manager, Jack believes his primary
responsibility is to make sure administrative processes are in place. He
has been a