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NRS 434VN Topic 2 DQ 1
Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age. Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. Describe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse. Need assignment help? Click here. 
 
answer
Child abuse and maltreatment is a global concern that happens throughout the lifespan, and is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. One of the most common types of child abuse and maltreatment reported is physical abuse and neglect. Educating yourself on the signs, symptoms, and indicators will ensure early detection of child abuse and legal reporting requirements to protect those who may be vulnerable.
The United States has a problem with child abuse and maltreatment. Although it is not limited to a particular age, it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. The most common forms of abuse are physical and emotional. Physical abuse can include shook baby syndrome (formerly referred to as infantile abuse syndrome), burn injuries, fractures, wounds, internal injuries. Emotional abuse is any nonphysical treatment or act by a parent or guardian that results in significant psychological pain to a child such as verbal insults, humiliation, intimidation, and rejection. Healthy children should receive developmental screening to identify physical and/or mental disabilities before they turn 18 months old. This gives parents time to work with community services so children receive the help they need. Nurses should have a high index of suspicion when caring for children who may have been abused or neglected and report possible abuse immediately.
Child abuse and maltreatment is not a concern reserved for the school-aged child. Children of all ages may be abused and/or neglected. The four groups that will be discussed in this paper are infants, toddlers, preschoolers and school-age children. Physical signs that may indicate child abuse or neglect include facial bruising, bite marks, scratches, malnourishment, burns and orthopedic injuries in the presence of a valid explanation for their cause. Psychological signs that may indicate child abuse or neglect include depression, anxiety and specific phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), nightmares, regressive behavior and withdrawal, social withdrawal, self-destructive behavior, fear of specific people or situations and chronic lying. Cultural variations exist among ethnic and cultural groups. For example Asian cultures do not view corporal punishment as harmful while other cultures find corporal punishment acceptable. Another cultural difference is that some Latino families watch babies while they cry versus immediately picking up their baby when they cry. Another difference is that after the birth of a baby more fathers visit home more regularly to care for infants in Hispanic families than those in Asian culture and African American families in which teenage boys are expected to assume some responsibility for newborn brothers and sisters. In addition
The types of abuse an infant may experience are either neglect or direct physical abuse. A toddler may be neglected or physically abused. A preschooler may also be neglected, physically, or sexually abused. An unexpected injury a child experiences in school that cannot be easily explained by the distance they fell could be a sign of sexual abuse. Certain health practices performed on young children by their parents or guardians could also seem like child abuse, including hitting and biting, using vinegar as punishment for misbehavior, making the child go outside without coverings for long periods of time, or forcing the child to eat certain foods that may cause harm.
Don’t let what you can’t see hurt what you love. The widespread problem of child abuse is often hidden from public view. Despite significant state and federal legislation to prevent child abuse and neglect, 19% of U.S. children experience some form of maltreatment before the age of 18 years.