+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com
  

Module 3 (Chapters 9 – 12) focuses on thinking, language, and intelligence (cognition), motivation and emotion, stress, health, and social psychology. Respond to the following questions by writing one full paragraph (100 word minimum) for each numbered question:

1. What was your overall impression with the information presented in the chapters contained in this module? For example, was it challenging, fascinating, did it make you question your previous assumptions, etc.

2. Name three concepts that you found to be of particular interest in this module. Why were they of special interest to you?

3. How do you think the information in this module applies to your life?

Social Psychology

Chapter 12

EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY

DAVID G. MYERS | C. NATHAN DEWALL

Chapter Overview

Social Thinking and Social Influence

Antisocial Relations

Prosocial Relations

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 1)

Social thinking

Social psychology

Focus on social influences that explain why the same person acts differently in different situations

Attribution theory

Behavior of others explained by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition

Fundamental attribution error

Tendency for observers, when analyzing others’ behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 2)

Factors that affect attributions

Culture

Whose behavior

Exceptions

Our deliberate, admirable actions are attributed to our own good reasons, not to the situation

With age, younger selves’ behaviors are attributed to our traits

Attributions matter

Attributions to a person’s disposition or to the situation have real consequences

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 3)

Dispositional versus situational attributions: Should the 2015 slaughter of nine African-Americans attending a church Bible study in Charleston, South Carolina, be attributed to the shooter’s disposition?

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 4)

Attitudes and actions

Attitudes affect actions

Attitude

Peripheral route persuasion

Central route persuasion

Actions affect attitudes

Food-in-the-door phenomenon

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 5)

Attitudes and actions

Role playing affects attitudes

Role

Zimbardo’s prison study

Cognitive dissonance theory

Attitudes-follow-behavior principle

People can act themselves into a way of thinking as easily as they can think of themselves acting in a certain way

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 7)

Social influences

Norms: Rules for expected and acceptable behavior

Influence and power of norms

Cultural influences

Culture: Behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by group of people and transmitted from one generation to next

Preservation of innovation; division of labor

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 8)

Cultural influences

Adaptability in cultural variations

Among beliefs and values

In how children are nurtured; how dead are buried; which clothes are worn

Variation over time

Vary, change, evolve, and shape lives

Social Thinking and Social Influence (part 9)

Conformity

Complying with social pressures

Types of conformity

Suggestibility

Social contagion (chameleon effect)

Mood contagion

Natural mimicry

Enable ability to empathize

Mood linkage

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 10)

Asch’s conformity experiments

Which of the three comparison lines is equal to the standard line?

What do you suppose most people would say after hearing five others say, “Line 3”?

More than one-third of the time, these “intelligent and well-meaning” college students were “willing to call white black” by going along with the group.

11

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 11)

Normative social influence: Conform to avoid rejection or to gain social approval

Informational social influence: Accept others’ opinions about reality

Is conformity good or bad?

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 12)

Conformity is more likely when people:

Are made to feel incompetent or insecure

Are in a group with at least three people, especially a group in which everyone else agrees

Admire the group’s status and attractiveness

Have not made a prior commitment to any response

Know that others in the group will observe their behavior

Are from a culture that strongly encourages respect for social standards

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 13)

In a repeat of the earlier experiment, 65 percent of the adult male “teachers” fully obeyed the experimenter’s commands to continue. They did so despite the “learner’s” earlier mention of a heart condition and despite hearing cries of protest after they administered what they thought were 150 volts and agonized protests after 330 volts. (Data from Milgram, 1974.)

14

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 14)

Conditions that influenced obedience (Milgram)

Person giving orders was close at hand and perceived to be a legitimate authority figure

Authority figure was supported by powerful or prestigious institution

Victim was depersonalized or at distance

No role models displayed defiance

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 14)

What do social influence studies teach us about ourselves?

Strong social influences induce many people to conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty

Great evils often grow out of compliance with lesser evils

After the first acts of compliance or resistance, attitudes begin to follow or justify the behavior

Minority influence is more likely when a position is held firmly

16

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 15)

Group behavior

Social facilitation (Triplett)

Social loafing

Deindividuation

Groupthink (Janis)

Mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic appraisal of the alternatives

See table 12.1 for additional information

17

Social Thinking and Social Influence
(part 16)

If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions.

Talking over racial issues increased prejudice in a high-prejudice group of high school students and decreased it in a low-prejudice group.

18

The Internet as Social Amplifier

The internet connects like-minded people

These connections can bring emotional healing

Online sharing can also strengthen social movements

Electronic communication and social networking can encourage people to isolate themselves from those with different opinions

On social media, we often share political content with like-minded others

Like-minded separation + conversation = group polarization

19

Antisocial Relations (part 1)

Prejudice

Prejudgment; unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members

Components

Negative emotions

Stereotypes

Predisposition to discriminate

Antisocial Relations (part 2)

Explicit and implicit prejudice

Explicit: Clear awareness

Implicit: Unthinking response

Focus of implicit research studies

Testing for unconscious group associations

Considering unconscious patronization

Monitoring reflexive bodily responses

Antisocial Relations (part 3)

Targets of prejudice

Racial and ethnic prejudice

Overt interracial prejudice wanes; subtle prejudice lingers

Implicit Association Test findings

Perceptions

Antisocial Relations (part 4)

In experiments by Keith Payne (2006), people viewed (a) a White or Black face, instantly followed by (b) a flashed gun or hand tool, which was then followed by (c) a masking screen. Participants were more likely to misperceive a tool as a gun when it was preceded by a Black face rather than a White face.

23

Antisocial Relations (part 5)

Targets of prejudice

Gender prejudice: Sharp decline of overt gender prejudice; implicit prejudice still exists

LGBTQ prejudice: Cultural variation, but explicit prejudice in most of the world; higher negative mental health consequences

Belief systems prejudice: Explicit prejudice; Muslims

Antisocial Relations (part 6)

Roots of prejudice

Social inequalities and divisions

Just-world phenomenon

Ingroup

Outgroup

Ingroup bias

Antisocial Relations (part 7)

Roots of prejudice

Negative emotions

Scapegoat theory and research evidence

Economically frustrated people tend to express heightened prejudice

Experiments that create temporary frustration intensify prejudice

Schadenfreude

Antisocial Relations (part 8)

Roots of prejudice

Cognitive shortcuts

Categorization by gender, ethnicity, race, age, and other factors may lead to stereotype

Outgroup homogeneity

Other-race effect (cross-race effect/own-race bias)

Categorizing Mixed-Race People

When New Zealanders quickly classified 104 photos by race, those of European descent more often than those of Chinese descent classified the ambiguous middle two photos as Chinese (Halberstadt et al., 2011).

27

Antisocial Relations (part 9)

Roots of prejudice

Remembering vivid cases: Availability heuristic

Victim blaming: Hindsight bias

Vivid Cases Feed Stereotypes

Global terrorism has created, in many minds, an exaggerated stereotype of Muslims as terrorism-prone. Actually, reported a U.S. National Research Council panel on terrorism, when offering this inexact illustration, most terrorists are not Muslim and “the vast majority of Islamic people have no connection with and do not sympathize with terrorism” (Smelser & Mitchell, 2002).

28

Antisocial Relations (part 10)

Aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone, whether done out of hostility or as a calculated means to an end

Emerges from the interaction of biology and experience

Antisocial Relations (part 11)

Biology of aggression

Genetic influences

Twin studies

Genetic markers (Y chromosome; monoamine oxidase [MAO])

Neural influences

Animal and human brains have neural systems that, given provocation, will either inhibit or facilitate aggression (amygdala; frontal lobes)

Biochemical influences

Hormones (testosterone)

Alcohol

Antisocial Relations (part 12)

Psychological and social-cultural factors in aggression

Aversive events

Frustration–aggression principle

Reinforcement and modeling

Differences in how cultures model, reinforce, and evoke violent tendencies

Media models for violence

Television, films, music, video games, and internet

Social scripts

Antisocial Relations (part 13)

Biopsychosocial Understanding of Aggression

Because many factors contribute to aggressive behavior, there are many ways to change such behavior, including learning anger management and communication skills, and avoiding violent media and video games.

32

Antisocial Relations (part 14)

Do violent video games teach social scripts
for violence ?

Which evidence supports your answer?

33

Prosocial Relations (part 1)

Attraction

Psychology of attraction

Proximity and mere exposure effect

Modern matchmaking

Online matchmaking

Speed dating

34

Prosocial Relations (part 2)

Attraction

Physical attractiveness

Predicts dating frequency and feeling of popularity

Affects initial personality impressions

Is unrelated to self-esteem and happiness

Is influenced by culture

Similarity

Influences the likelihood that a relationship will endure

Reward theory of attraction

35

Prosocial Relations (part 3)

Romantic love

Passionate love

Aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a romantic relationship

Two-factor theory of emotion

Two ingredients of emotion: Physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal

Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another, depending on how arousal is interpreted or labeled

Prosocial Relations (part 4)

Romantic love

Companionate love

Deep, affectionate attachment; adaptive value

Testosterone, dopamine, and adrenaline levels subside; oxytocin remains

Equity

Self-disclosure

Self-disclosing intimacy + mutually supportive equity = enduring companionate love

Prosocial Relations (part 5)

Altruism

Unselfish concern for the welfare of others

Bystander intervention

Situational factor influence: Presence of others

The Decision -Making Process for Bystander Intervention

Before helping, one must first notice an emergency, then correctly interpret it, and then feel responsible. (Adapted from Darley & Latane, 1968b.)

38

Prosocial Relations (part 6)

Responses to a simulated emergency

When people thought they alone heard the calls for help from a person they believed to be having an epileptic seizure, they usually helped.

When they thought four others were also hearing the calls, fewer than one-third responded. (Data from Darley & Latane, 1968a.)

Prosocial Relations (part 7)

Bystander intervention

Helping someone depends on the characteristics of the person, situation, and internal state

What contributes to the likelihood that a person will help another in need?

The odds of helping are highest in the following situations:

• The person appears to need and deserve help.

• The person is in some way similar to us.

• The person is a woman.

• We have just observed someone else being helpful.

• We are not in a hurry.

• We are in a small town or rural area.

• We are feeling guilty.

• We are focused on others and not preoccupied.

• We are in a good mood.

40

So…

Happiness breeds helpfulness
and

Helpfulness breeds happiness

Prosocial Relations (part 8)

From conflict to peace

Conflict

Involves perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

May create either a positive change or a destructive process

Prosocial Relations (part 9)

From conflict to peace

Social traps

Involve the right to pursue personal well-being versus responsibility for the well-being of all

Mitigated with effective regulations, communication, and awareness

Enemy perceptions

Mirror-image perceptions

Self-fulfilling prophecies

Prosocial Relations (part 10)

How can we make peace?

Contact

Cooperation

Sherif: Superordinate goals

Communication

Third-party mediator; win-win orientation

Conciliation

Osgood: Graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT)

Motivation and Emotion

Chapter 10

EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY

DAVID G. MYERS | C. NATHAN DEWALL

Chapter Overview

Basic Motivational Concepts, Affiliation, and Achievement

Hunger

Theories and Physiology of Emotion

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 1)

Motivational concepts

Instinct theory (evolutionary theory): Genetically predisposed behaviors

Drive-reduction theory: Response to inner pushes and pulls

Arousal theory: Finding the right stimulation level

Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Priority of some needs over others

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 2)

Instincts and evolutionary theory

Instinct

Complex behavior throughout species

Unlearned fixed patterns

Assumption: evolutionary psychology

Genes predispose some species-typical behaviors

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 3)

Drive-reduction theory

Physiological needs create an aroused, motivated state (incentive)

When physiological needs increase, so does the psychological drive to reduce those needs (homeostasis)

Pushed by need to reduce drives; pulled by incentives

Drive-reduction theory: Drive-reduction motivation arises from homeostasis—an organism’s natural tendency to maintain a steady internal state. Thus, if we are deprived of water, our thirst drives us to drink and to restore the body’s normal state.

5

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 4)

Arousal theory

Some motivated behaviors can increase—rather than decrease—arousal

Human motivation aims to find optimal arousal levels, not to eliminate arousal

Yerkes-Dodson law states that moderate arousal leads to optimal performance

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 5)

Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs

Begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied …

Before people can fulfill their higher-level safety needs …

Then their psychological needs

Some needs take priority over others; the hierarchy is not universally fixed.

Meaning is related to purpose, significance, and coherence.

People’s sense of life’s meaning predicts their psychological and physical well-being, and their capacity to delay gratification.

7

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 6)

Reduced to semistarvation by their rulers, inhabitants of Suzanne Collins’ fictional nation, Panem, hunger for food and survival. Hunger Games heroine Katniss Everdeen expresses higher-level needs for actualization and transcendence, and in the process inspires the nation.

8

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 7)

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 8)

The need to belong: affiliation need

Central human motivation to build relationships and feel part of a group

Enhances survival

Colors thoughts and emotions

Related to health, performance, and self-esteem

Thwarts loneliness and social isolation

Self-determination theory

Competence

Autonomy

Relatedness

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 9)

Being shut out

Ostracism (social exclusion) threatens the need to belong and causes pain

Social media ostracism causes similar pain

Pain

Focuses and motivates corrective action

Positive and negative remedies

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 10)

Mobile networks and social media

Provide information and supportive connections among friends and family

Activate reward centers in the brain

Function as a matchmaker

Predict longer life when used in moderation

Enable comparisons that can create envy and depression

Support narcissistic tendencies

12

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 11)

Strategies for maintaining balance and focus

Monitor time

Monitor feelings

Hide from incessantly posting online friends when necessary

Check phone and email less often when studying

Refocus and take a nature walk

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 12)

Achievement motivation

Desire for significant accomplishment, for mastery of skills or ideas, for control, and for attaining a high standard

High-motivation achievers

Accomplish more; greater financial success; healthier social relationships and emotional well-being

Demonstrate persistence, self-discipline, grit, and intrinsic motivation

Basic Motivational Concepts,
Affiliation, and Achievement (part 13)

Research-based strategies for achieving goals

Set concrete goals

Share goals with friends or family

Develop an implementation plan

Create short-term rewards that support long-term goals

Monitor and record progress

Create a supportive environment

Transform difficult behavior into habit

Hunger (part 1)

16

Hunger (part 2)

Physiology of hunger

Body chemistry and the brain

Glucose

Set point

Basal metabolic rate

Physiology: Body chemistry and brain activity

Glucose: The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

Set point: The point at which your “weight thermostat” may be set. When your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore lost weight.

Basal metabolic rate: The body’s resting rate of energy output.

17

The Hypothalamus

(a) The hypothalamus (colored orange) performs various body maintenance functions, including control of hunger. Blood vessels supply the hypothalamus, enabling it to respond to our current blood chemistry as well as to incoming neural information about the body’s state. (b) The fat mouse on the left has nonfunctioning receptors in the appetite-suppressing part of the hypothalamus.

18

The Appetite Hormones

Hormones that increase appetite:

• Ghrelin: Hormone secreted by the empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to the brain.

• Orexin: Hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus.

Hormones that decrease appetite:

• Insulin: Hormone secreted by the pancreas; controls blood glucose.

• Leptin: Protein hormone secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes the brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger.

• PYY: Digestive tract hormone; sends “I’m not hungry” signals to the brain.

19

Hunger (part 3)

Psychology of hunger

Hunger: Involves body chemistry, brain activity, and memory of time of last meal

Taste preferences: Influenced by body cues and environmental factors

Physiology: Body chemistry and brain activity

Countries with hot climates, in which food historically spoiled more quickly, feature recipes with more bacteria-inhibiting spices (Sherman & Flaxman, 2001). India averages nearly 10 spices per meat recipe; Finland, 2 spices.

20

Hunger (part 4)

Situational influences on eating

Arousing appetite

Friends and food

Serving size

Selection

Nudging nutrition

21

Hunger (part 5)

Effects of obesity

Physical health risks

Increased depression

Bullying

Physiology factors

Storing fat was adaptive

Set point and metabolism matter

Genes influence us

Environmental factors

Sleep loss

Social influences

Food and activity levels

Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) measurement of 30 or higher. Overweight individuals have a BMI of 25 or higher.

22

Hunger (part 6)

Weight loss strategies

Begin when motivated and self-disciplined

Exercise and sleep adequately

Minimize exposure to tempting food cues

Limit variety and eat healthy foods

Reduce portions

Don’t starve and stuff

Decide what you will eat before eating with others

Chart progress online

Connect to a support group

Remember: Most people occasionally lapse!

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 1)

Emotion: arousal, behavior, and cognition

Components of emotion

Bodily arousal

Expressive behaviors

Conscious experience

How do these three pieces fit together
to explain emotion?

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 2)

James-Lange theory

Arousal comes before emotion

Arises from awareness of specific bodily responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

Cannon-Bard theory

Arousal and emotion occur simultaneously

Emotion-arousing stimuli trigger bodily responses and simultaneous subjective experience

Schachter-Singer two-factor theory

General arousal + conscious cognitive label = emotion

Spillover effect

Emotion: Response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.

25

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 3)

Zajonc-LeDoux theory

Some embodied responses happen instantly, without conscious appraisal

Acutely sensitive radar for emotionally significant information

Lazarus

Cognitive appraisal defines emotion, sometimes without awareness

Cognitive low road

Two Pathways for Emotions

26

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 4)

In the two-track brain, sensory input may be (a) routed to the cortex (via the thalamus) for analysis and then transmitted to the amygdala, or (b) routed directly to the amygdala (via the thalamus) for an instant emotional reaction.

27

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 5)

Embodied emotion

Basic emotions

Most emotion scientists: Anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness

Izard: Joy, interest–excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, guilt

Tracy and colleagues: Added pride, love

Are these emotions biologically distinct?

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 6)

To identify the emotions generally present in infancy, Carroll Izard analyzed the facial expressions of infants.

29

Emotional Arousal

Like a crisis control center, the autonomic nervous system arouses the body in a crisis and calms it when danger passes.

30

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 7)

Physiology of emotions

Different emotions can share common biological signatures

A single brain region can serve as the seat of different emotions

Insula

Some emotions have distinct brain circuits

Theories and Physiology of Emotion (part 8)

Lie detection

Polygraphs measure emotion-linked autonomic arousal

Changes in breathing, heart rate, and perspiration

About one-third of the time, polygraph test results are just wrong

The Concealed Information Test is more effective

32

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion
(part 1)

Detecting emotions in others

The brain detects subtle expressions in reading nonverbal cues and nonverbal threats

Facial muscles reveal emotional signs

Deceit is difficult to discern

When viewing the morphed middle face, which evenly mixes anger with fear, physically abused children were more likely than nonabused children to perceive the face as angry (Pollak & Kistler, 2002; Pollak & Tolley-Schell, 2003).

33

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion
(part 2)

Gender, emotion, and nonverbal behavior

Women generally surpass men

Reading emotional cues

Emotional literacy

Emotional responsiveness and expressiveness

Expressing empathy

Experiencing emotional events more deeply

Remembering these better

Male and female film viewers did not differ dramatically in self-reported emotions or physiological responses. But the women’s faces showed much more emotion. (Data from Kring & Gordon, 1998.)

34

Male or Female?

Researchers manipulated a gender-neutral face. People were more likely to see it as male when it wore an angry expression and female when it wore a smile (Becker et al., 2007).

35

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion
(part 3)

Culture and emotion

Signs across cultures

Crying when distressed; shaking head when defiant; smiling when happy

Facial muscles speak universal language; the degree varies among and within cultures

Gestures

Meanings vary from culture to culture

Facial expressions

Some nonverbal accents provide cultural cues

Culture and Emotion

As people of differing cultures, do our faces speak differing languages? Which face expresses disgust? Anger? Fear? Happiness? Sadness? Surprise? (From Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989.)

37

Remember!

Like most psychological events, emotion is best understood not only as a biological and cognitive phenomenon, but also as a social-cultural phenomenon.

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion
(part 4)

The effects of facial expressions

Facial expression communicate, amplify, and regulate emotion

Facial feedback effect

Tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness

Behavior feedback effect

Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions

Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Chapter 9

EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY

DAVID G. MYERS | C. NATHAN DEWALL

Chapter Overview

Thinking

Language and Thought

Intelligence and Its Assessment

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence

Thinking (part 1)

Cognition

All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Concept

Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

Simplifies thinking

Prototype

Mental image or best example of a category

Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

Thinking (part 2)

Categorizing faces influences recollection. Shown a face that was 70 percent Caucasian, people tended to classify the person as Caucasian and to recollect the face as more Caucasian than it was. (Recreation of experiment courtesy of Olivier Corneille.)

4

Thinking (part 3)

Problem solving: strategies

Trial and error

Algorithm: Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

Heuristic: Simple thinking strategy that often allows efficient judgments and problem solving

A heuristic is usually speedier but also more error-prone than an algorithm.

5

Thinking (part 4)

Insight

Sudden realization of a problem’s solution

Contrasts with strategy-based solutions

A burst of right temporal lobe activity accompanied insight solutions to word problems (Jung-Beeman et al., 2004). The red dots designate EEG electrodes. The light gray lines show the distribution of high-frequency activity accompanying insight. The insight-related activity is centered in the right temporal lobe (yellow area).

6

Thinking (part 5)

Problem solving: obstacles

Confirmation bias: Tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

Fixation: Inability to adopt to a fresh perspective

Mental set: Tendency to approach problems with a mindset of what has worked previously

Thinking (part 6)

Forming good (and bad) decisions and judgments

Intuition: Effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

Representativeness heuristic

Estimating likelihood of events in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes

May lead us to ignore other relevant information

Availability heuristic

Estimating likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

If instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

Thinking (part 7)

The fear factor

Humans fear

What ancestral history has prepared us to fear

What cannot be controlled

What is immediate

What is most readily available in memory (availability) heuristic

We often fear the wrong things!

Thinking (part 8)

Overconfidence

Challenging

Tendency to overestimate accuracy of personal knowledge and judgments

Leads to overestimation of future leisure time and income (planning fallacy)

Can encourage political views, and lead to inflexibility and closed-mindedness

Adaptive

May boost self-confidence, make difficult decisions more easily, and seem competent

Thinking (part 9)

Belief perseverance

Tendency to cling to beliefs in the face of contrary evidence

Often uses motivated reasoning

Framing

Presentation of an issue

Can nudge attitudes and decisions

Thinking (part 10)

Smart intuition

Recognition born of experience

Usually adaptive, enabling quick reactions

Plays a huge role

Smart thinkers

Are deliberate and aware of intuitive option, but know when to override it.

Thinking (part 11)

Thinking creatively

Creativity: Ability to produce new and valuable ideas

Convergent thinking: Narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution

Divergent thinking: Expanding the number of possible problem solutions; creative thinking that diverges in different directions

Thinking (part 12)

Components of creativity (Sternberg and colleagues)

Expertise

Imaginative thinking skills

Venturesome personality

Intrinsic motivation

Creative environment

Strategies for boosting the creative process

Allow incubation time

Set aside time for the mind to roam freely

Experience other cultures and ways of thinking

Do Other Species Share Our Cognitive Skills?

Nonhuman animals, including all mammals and birds, have neural networks that generate consciousness (Low et al.)

Using concepts and numbers

Displaying insight

Transmitting culture

Other cognitive skills

Animal talents. (a) One male chimpanzee in Sweden’s Furuvik Zoo was observed every morning collecting stones into a neat little pile, which later in the day he used as ammunition to pelt visitors (Osvath & Karvonen, 2012). (b) Crows studied by Christopher Bird and Nathan Emery (2009) quickly learned to raise the water level in a tube and nab a floating worm by dropping in stones. Other crows have used twigs to probe for insects, and bent strips of metal to reach food.

15

Language and Thought (part 1)

Language structure

Language

Phoneme

Morpheme

Grammar

Semantics

Syntax

Language: Spoken, written, or signed words and the ways these are combine to communicate meaning.

Phoneme: Smallest distinctive sound unit.

Morpheme: Smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word.

Grammar: System of rules that enables communicate with and understanding of others.

Semantics: Set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds.

Syntax: Set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.

16

Language and Thought (part 2)

Language acquisition and development

Chomsky

Unlearned human trait

Universal grammar

Ibbotson and Tomasello (and others)

World languages are more structurally diverse than the universal grammar system

Grammar is learned from the distinct patterns heard

Universal grammar: Built-in predisposition to learn grammar rules.

17

Language and Thought (part 3)

Brought together as if on a desert island (actually a school), Nicaragua’s young deaf children over time drew upon sign gestures from home to create their own Nicaraguan Sign Language, complete with words and intricate grammar.

What does this tell us about language?

Our biological predisposition for language does not create language in a vacuum. Instead, activated by a social context, nature and nurture work creatively together (Osborne, 1999; Sandler et al., 2005; Senghas & Coppola, 2001).

18

Language and Thought (part 4)

Receptive language

Recognition of differences in speech sounds

Preference for face–sound match

Human infants come with a remarkable capacity to soak up language. But the particular language they learn will reflect their unique interactions with others.

19

Language and Thought (part 5)

Productive language

Babbling stage

One-word stage

Two-word stage

Telegraphic speech

Babbling stage: Beginning around 4 months, the stage of speech development in which an infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.

One-word stage: Stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

Two-word stage: Beginning about age2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.

Telegraphic speech: Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—“go car”—using mostly nouns and verbs.

20

Language and Thought (part 6)

Month (approximate) Stage
4 Babbles many speech sounds (“ah-goo”)
10 Babbling resembles household language (“ma-ma”)
12 One-word speech (“Kitty!”)
24 Two-word speech (“Get ball.”)
24+ Rapid development into complete sentences

Language and Thought (part 7)

Critical periods

Language development follows a sequence

Childhood represents a sensitive period for mastering certain language aspects

The ability to master any language is lost around age 7, if exposure to spoken or signed language does not occur

Prelingually deaf children born to hearing–nonsigning parents typically become linguistically stunted

Language and Thought (part 8)

Our Ability to Learn a New Language Diminishes with Age

Ten years after coming to the United States, Asian immigrants took an English grammar test. Although there is no sharply defined critical period for second- language learning, those who arrived before age 8 understood American English grammar as well as native speakers did. Those who arrived later did not. (Data from Johnson & Newport, 1991.)

23

Language and Thought (part 9)

The brain and language

The brain divides mental functions into subfunctions to process language; parallel processing occurs.

Damage to any of several cortical areas can produce aphasia.

Damage to left frontal lobe (Broca’s area): Can sing familiar songs and comprehend speech; struggle with speech production

Damage to left temporal lobe (Wernicke’s area): Can speak only meaningless words; unable to understand speech of others

Language and Thought (part 10)

Language and Thought (part 11)

Do other species have language?

Some animals display basic language processing

Gardner and Gardner (Washoe) (1960s)

Savage-Rumbaugh and colleagues (Kanzi) (1993; 2009)

Skeptics

Simple, ape vocabularies are limited

Learning may be mimicry, not language

Perceptual sets are not clearly seen

Rules of syntax are not evident

Language and Thought (part 12)

Linguistic determinism

Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think

Linguistic relativism

Language has influence on the way we think

Words define mental categories

Perceived differences grow and change with different assigned names (colors)

Different personality profiles may exist in bilingual individuals; bilingual advantage

Language and Thought (part 13)

Language and Perception

When people view blocks of equally different colors, they perceive those with different names as more different. Thus the “green” and “blue” in contrast A may appear to differ more than the two equally different blues in contrast B

28

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 1)

What is intelligence?

Intelligence: Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

General intelligence (g): According to Spearman and others, underlies all mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 2)

Theories of multiple intelligence

Gardner’s multiple intelligences

Eight (later nine) relatively independent intelligences

Intelligence domains include multiple abilities that come in various configurations

Savant syndrome

Sternberg’s three intelligences

Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence

Creative intelligence

Practical intelligence

Gardner and Sternberg differ in some areas, but they agree on two important points: Multiple abilities can contribute to life success, and differing varieties of giftedness bring both spice to life and challenges for education. After being trained to appreciate such variety, many teachers have applied multiple intelligence theories in their classrooms.

30

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 3)

Gardner’s Eight Intelligences

Gardner has also proposed existential intelligence (the ability to ponder deep questions about life) as a ninth possible intelligence.

31

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 4)

Criticisms of multiple intelligence theories

Factor analysis confirms the existence of the general intelligence factor (g)

Extremely high cognitive-ability scores predict exceptional achievements

Expert performance and the 10-year rule

32

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 5)

Emotional Intelligence

Critical part of social intelligence

Includes four abilities

Perceiving emotions

Understanding emotions

Managing emotions

Using emotions

Gardner includes interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence

Social intelligence is the know-how involved in understanding social situations and managing yourself successfully (Cantor, Kihlstron, Thorndike, & Goleman).

33

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 6)

Theory Summary Strengths Other Considerations
Spearman’s general
intelligence (g)
A basic intelligence predicts
our abilities in varied academic
areas.
Different abilities, such as verbal and spatial, do have some tendency to correlate. Human abilities are
too diverse to be
encapsulated by a single general intelligence factor.
Gardner’s multiple
intelligences
Our abilities are best classified
into eight or nine independent
intelligences, which include a
broad range of skills beyond
traditional school smarts.
Intelligence is more than just verbal and mathematical skills. Other abilities are equally important to our human adaptability. Should all our abilities be considered intelligences? Shouldn’t some be called less vital talents?
Sternberg’s triarchic theory Our intelligence is best classified into three areas that predict real-world success: analytical, creative, and practical. These three domains can be reliably measured. These three domains may be less independent than
Sternberg thought and
may actually share an
underlying g factor.
Emotional intelligence Social intelligence is an
important indicator of life
success. Emotional intelligence is a key aspect, consisting of perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions.
These four components predict social success and emotional well-being. Does this stretch the
concept of intelligence
too far?

34

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 7)

Assessing intelligence

Intelligence tests: Assess mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others, using numerical scores

Achievement tests: Intended to reflect what is learned

Aptitude tests: Intended to predict ability to learn some new skill

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 8)

What do intelligence tests take?

Binet: Predicting school achievement

Same course of intellectual development; rate differs

Mental age

Terman: Measuring innate intelligence

Numerical measure of intelligence (Standard–Binet); relative to average performance

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 9)

What do intelligence tests take?

Wechsler: Tests separate strengths

Yields overall intelligence score and separate scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed

Versions

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCI); preschool version

2008 WAIS subsets

Similarities

Vocabulary

Block design

Letter–number sequencing

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 10)

Three tests of a “good” test

Standardized

Normal curve

Reliable

Split-half

Test-retest

Correlation

Valid

Predictive validity

Scores on aptitude tests tend to form a normal, or bell-shaped, curve around an average score. For the Wechsler scale, for example, the average score is 100.

38

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 11)

Extremes of intelligence

Low extreme (Intellectual disability)

Apparent before age 18

Criteria for diagnosis

Intelligence test score indicating performance in lowest 3 percent of general population, or about 70 or below

Difficulty adapting to normal demands of independent living

Conceptual

Social

Practical

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 12)

Extremes of intelligence

High extreme

Terman’s high-scoring children; IQ over 135; high levels of education attained

Lubinski’s high math SAT scores at age 13; top 1 percent; 1650 patents by age 50

Kell and others high verbal aptitude 13-year-old; professors or doctorates at age 38

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 13)

Intelligence across the life span

Before age 3: Modest prediction of future aptitudes from casual observation and intelligence tests

By age 4: Intelligence tests begin to predict adolescent and adult score

By ages 11 to 70: Impressive stability, independent of life circumstances

The consistency of scores over time increases with the age of the child.

41

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 14)

When Ian Deary and his colleagues retested 80-year-old Scots, using an intelligence test they had taken as 11-year-olds, their scores across seven decades correlated +0.66, as shown here. (Data from Deary et al., 2004.) When 106 survivors were again retested at age 90, the correlation with their age 11 scores was +0.54 (Deary et al., 2013).

42

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 15)

Why do children and adults who are more intelligent tend to live healthier and longer lives?

Intelligence facilitates more education, better jobs, and a healthier environment.

Intelligence encourages healthy living: less smoking, better diet, more exercise.

Prenatal events or early childhood illnesses can influence both intelligence and health.

A “well-wired body,” as evidenced by fast reaction speeds, may foster both intelligence and longevity.

43

Thinking Critically About Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

Researchers using the cross-sectional method study different groups at one time. They have found that mental ability declines with age.

Researchers using the longitudinal method study and restudy the same group at different times in their life span. They have found that intelligence remains stable, and on some tests it even increases.

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 16)

Aging and Intelligence

Cohort

Crystallized intelligence

Fluid intelligence

Intelligence and Its Assessment (part 17)

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 1)

Heredity and intelligence

Heritability: Portion of variation among people in group that is attributed to genes

Heritability of intelligence: Varies from study to study

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 2)

The most genetically similar people have the most similar intelligence scores. Remember: 1.00 indicates a perfect correlation; zero indicates no correlation at all. (Data from McGue et al., 1993.)

48

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 3)

Environment and intelligence

Several studies suggest that a shared environment exerts a modest influence on intelligence test scores.

Adoption from poverty into middle-class homes

Adoption of mistreated or neglected children

Intelligence scores of “virtual twins”

Genetic influences become more apparent as life experience is accumulated.

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 4)

50

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 5)

Gene–environment interactions

Epigenetics: Microbiology study of nature–nurture nexus

Genes shape experiences that can shape us in positive and negative ways

Severe deprivation and brain development

Impact of early intervention

Growth mindset

Focus on learning and growing; belief that intelligence is changeable

Ability + opportunity + motivation = success

51

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 6)

Group differences in intelligence test scores

Gender similarities and differences

Men estimate own intelligence as higher than do women

Actual differences are minor; influence may be related to social expectations and opportunities

During school

Girls outpace boys in spelling, verbal fluency, and locating objects; increased sensitivity to emotions, touch, taste, and color

Boys outperform girls on complex math problems, spatial ability tests; more low and high extremes

Little gender difference in math computation and overall math

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 7)

Racial and ethnic similarities and differences: Scientifically agreed-upon facts

Racial and ethnic groups IQ test score differences

High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain higher education and income levels

Group differences provide little basis for judging individuals

Might racial and ethnic gaps be environmental?

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (part 8)

Are intelligence tests biased?

Depends on which definition of bias is used

Scientific meaning based on test validity

Everyday language considers fairness or unfairness of a test

Test-taker expectations

Stereotype threat

Stress, Health, and
Human Flourishing

Chapter 11

EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY

DAVID G. MYERS | C. NATHAN DEWALL

Chapter Overview

Stress and Illness

Health and Happiness

Stress and Illness (part 1)

Stress: Some basic concepts

Process of appraising and responding to a threatening or challenging event

Stressor

Stress reaction

Positive effects

Short-lived or perceived as challenge

Immune system mobilization; motivation; resilience

Negative effects

Extreme or prolonged stress

Risky decision making and unhealthy behaviors

Stress and Illness (part 2)

Stress appraisal: Events of our lives flow through a psychological filter. How we appraise an event influences how much stress we experience and how effectively we respond to that stress.

4

Stress and Illness (part 3)

Stressors

Catastrophes

Large-scale disasters

Acculturative stress

Significant life changes

Life transitions

Cluster of crises

Daily hassles

Compounded by prejudice and life circumstances

Psychological and physical consequences

Stress and Illness (part 4)

Stress response system

Cannon

Stress response is part of a unified mind–body system

Fight-or-flight adaptive response

Selye

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Phase 1: Alarm reaction

Phase 2: Resistance

Phase 3: Exhaustion

Human body copes well with temporary stress but may be damaged by prolonged stress

Stress and Illness (part 5)

Due to the ongoing conflict, Syria’s White Helmets (volunteer rescuers) are perpetually in “alarm reaction” mode, rushing to pull victims from the rubble after each fresh attack. As their resistance is depleted, they risk exhaustion.

Gender differences in coping strategies

Earlier death

Tend-and-befriend response

Withdrawal

7

Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome

Stress and Illness (part 6)

Stress and vulnerability to disease

Health psychology: Subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine

Psychoneuroimmunology: Study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health

Stress and Illness (part 7)

Psychological states have physiological effects

Stress can reduce the ability to fight disease

Trigger immune suppression

Delay surgical wound healing

Increase vulnerability to colds

Hasten disease course

Stress does not cause illness, but it does alter immune functioning that reduces the ability to resist infection

Stress and Health

Stress and Illness (part 8)

Cancer

Stress does not create cancer cells

Heart disease

Coronary heart disease

Type A personality

Type B personality

Inflammation

Blood vessel inflammation

A Harvard School of Public Health team found pessimistic men had a doubled risk of developing heart disease over a 10-year period. (Data from Kubzansky et al., 2001.)

12

Does Stress Cause Illness?

13

Stress and Illness (part 9)

Anger management

Individualist cultures

Venting rage

Catharsis (emotional release)

Fails to cleanse rage

Can magnify anger (behavior feedback research)

Backfire potential

Anger management strategies

Wait

Find healthy distraction or support

Distance yourself

14

Health and Happiness (part 1)

Coping with stress

Coping: Alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods

Problem-focused coping: Attempting to alleviate stress directly—by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

Emotion-focused coping: Attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and by attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction

Health and Happiness (part 2)

Coping with stress

Perceived loss of control

Losing personal control provokes stress hormone output

Rising stress hormone levels related to blood pressure increase and immune response decreases

Learned helplessness

Learned helplessness: When animals and people experience no control over repeated bad events, they often learn helplessness.

16

Health and Happiness (part 3)

Coping with stress

External locus of control

Chance or outside forces control fate

Posttraumatic stress symptoms

Internal locus of control

People control their own fate

Free will, willpower, and self-control

Health and Happiness (part 4)

Building self-control

Self-control

Ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for longer-term rewards

Predicts good health, higher income, and better school performance

Strengthening self-control: Practice in overcoming unwanted urges

Depleting self-control: Depletion effect

Health and Happiness (part 5)

Explanatory style: Optimism versus pessimism

Optimists

Expect to have more control, to cope better with stressful events, and to enjoy better health

Optimism tends to run in families

Optimistic students

Tend to get better grades

Respond to setbacks with more productive strategies

Health and Happiness (part 6)

Social support

Feeling liked and encouraged by intimate friends and family

Promotes happiness and health

Social isolation

Leads to higher loneliness and risk of death equivalent to smoking

Health and Happiness (part 7)

Research-based findings about the health benefits of social support

Calms and reduces blood pressure and stress hormones

Fosters stronger immune functioning

Provides an opportunity to confide painful feelings

Health and Happiness (part 8)

Reducing stress

Aerobic exercise: Sustained, oxygen-consuming exertion that increases heart and lung fitness

Benefits of exercise

Adds to quality of life (moderate)

Helps fight heart disease and reduce heart attack risk

Predictor of life satisfaction

Reduces depression and anxiety

22

Health and Happiness (part 9)

23

Health and Happiness (part 10)

Reducing stress

Biofeedback

Recording, amplifying, and feeding back information about subtle physiological responses (many of which are controlled by the autonomic nervous system)

Works best on tension headaches

Relaxation

Helps alleviate headaches, hypertension, anxiety, and insomnia

Lowers stress

Promotes better wound healing

24

Health and Happiness (part 11)

Recurrent Heart Attacks and Lifestyle Modification

The San Francisco Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project offered counseling from a cardiologist to survivors of heart attacks. Those who were also guided in modifying their Type A lifestyle suffered fewer repeat heart attacks. (Data from Friedman & Ulmer, 1984.)

25

Health and Happiness (part 12)

Reducing stress

Meditation

Reduces suffering

Improves awareness, insight, and compassion

Mindfulness meditation

Relaxation and silent attendance to inner space; monitored breathing

Linked with lessened anxiety and depression, as well as improved sleep, interpersonal relationships, and immune system functioning

26

Health and Happiness (part 13)

What happens in the brain as mindfulness is practiced?

Correlational and experimental studies offer three explanations

Mindfulness strengthens connections among regions in our brain

Mindfulness activates brain regions associated with more reflective awareness

Mindfulness calms brain activation in emotional situations

27

Health and Happiness (part 14)

Faith communities and health

Faith factor

Religiously active people tend to live longer than inactive people

Women are more religiously active than men and outlive them

One 28-year study followed 5286 Alameda, California, adults (Oman et al., 2002; Strawbridge, 1999; Strawbridge et al., 1997). Controlling for age and education, the researchers found that not smoking, regular exercise, and religious attendance all predicted a lowered risk of death in any given year. Women attending weekly religious services, for example, were only 54 percent as likely to die in a typical study year as were nonattenders.

28

Health and Happiness (part 15)

Possible explanations for the correlation between religious involvement and health/longevity.

29

Happiness (part 1)

Positive psychology (Seligman)

Feel-good, do-good phenomenon

Subjective well-being

Core features

Good life that engages one’s skills; meaningful life that extends beyond self

Positive traits that focus on exploring and enhancing a wide range of behaviors

Positive groups, communities, and cultures

“Positive psychology,” Seligman and colleagues (2005) have said, “is an umbrella term for the study of positive emotions, positive character traits, and enabling institutions.”

30

Happiness (part 2)

What affects well-being?

Emotional ups and downs of days and within-days rebound

Rebounding from worse events takes longer; even tragedy is not permanently depressing

Duration of emotions is overestimated; resiliency is underestimated

Happiness (part 3)

Wealth and well-being

People in rich countries are happier than people in poorer countries

The power to increase happiness is strongest at lower incomes

Once enough money for comfort and security is attained, accruing more money matters less

Economic growth in affluent countries has provided no apparent boost to people’s morale or social well-being

Happiness (part 4)

Happiness is relative: Adaptation and comparison

Happiness is relative to our own experience

Adaptation-level phenomenon

Happiness is relative to the success of others

Relative deprivation

Happiness (part 5)

Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as
Have high self-esteem (in individualist countries). Age.
Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable. Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful).
Have close, positive, and lasting relationships. Physical attractiveness.
Have work and leisure that engage their skills.
Have an active religious faith (especially in more religious cultures).
Sleep well and exercise.

Happiness (part 6)

Which suggestions can you provide for a happier life? What did the text suggest?