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Midterm Exam – Essay Portion

Directions:
Choose any TWO (2) of the following essays to answer. Your answers should be in complete sentences and give multiple, specific historical examples from the 11 films that were assigned to support your essay. Give examples from multiple films whenever possible. There is no minimum length, but each essay will probably require at least a full page (double-spaced) of your analysis for a complete answer. Make sure your answers are your own – any plagiarism will result in a failing grade. Each essay is worth 25 points (50 points total) and the essays must be submitted via email by 11:59pm.

1) Discuss the Pre-Columbian civilizations of Latin America. What were their greatest accomplishments? In what ways were they more advanced than Europeans? In what ways were they less developed than Europeans? In your opinion, which was the greatest pre-Columbian civilization in Latin America and why?

2) How were a few hundred Spanish able to conquer the huge Native American civilizations of Mexico and Peru? What advantages did the Spanish have? What disadvantages did the natives have? Were there any significant differences between the conquests of Mexico and Peru?

3) Compare and contrast the conquest and colonization of Brazil with the rest of Spanish America. In what ways were the colonies similar? In what ways were they different? Consider political, economic, social, and religious factors when comparing and contrasting Brazil to the rest of Latin America.

4) In what ways were the Native American populations of Latin America oppressed and exploited by the Spanish and Portuguese after the conquests? Why types of abuse did the natives suffer during the colonial period? Consider political, economic, social, and religious factors.

5) Why did Latin American colonies rise up in revolutions during the early 1800s? What were the social, political, economic, and philosophical reasons Latin Americans wanted independence from Spain and Portugal? Who led the independence movements? Were there major differences in the independence movements in different parts of Latin America?