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Leveraging Search Technologies (105 points)

Google is the world’s premier search engine with more than 60,000 searches made every second, which equates to between five and six billion searches on any given day. As a result, the company is highly profitable earning around $100 billion in advertising revenue each year.

Research an organization located in the Kingdom Saudi Arabia and discuss the following:

1. Introduction 

  1. What type of search engine technology is the      company using?
  2. Discuss the benefits the company is gaining from      using that technology.
  3. What sort of metrics does the company use to      measure the success of the utilized search engine technology?
  4. What other metrics might the company consider      using to measure the success of the utilized search engine technology? 
  5. Why other metrics might, the company consider      using to measure the success of the utilized search engine technology?

7. conclusion

should meet the following requirements:

  • Be 5 pages in length, which does      not include the title page, abstract, or required reference page, which is      never a part of the content minimum requirements.
  • Use APA (7th ed) style guidelines.
  • Support your submission with course      material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least nine scholarly,      peer-reviewed journal articles. 
  • Please      include in the answer Appendix (      Graph or table …)

  

Writing rules 

· Use a standard format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs, headline (and conclusion). 

· Make sure to include all the key points within conclusion section, which is discussed in the assignment. Your way of conclusion should be logical, flows from the body of the paper, and reviews the major points.

· I would like to see more depth for the question

· Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size. 

· Plagiarism All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. 

· Written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook

Required:

Chapter 6 in Information Technology for Management: On-Demand Strategies for Performance, Growth, and Sustainability

Wei, L., & Na, C. (2020). Personalized recommendation algorithm based on improved trustworthiness. 2020 International Conference on Robots & Intelligent System (ICRIS), 526–528.

Drivas, I. C., Sakas, D. P., Giannakopoulos, G. A., & Kyriaki-Manessi, D. (2020). Big Data Analytics for Search Engine Optimization. Big Data and Cognitive Computing, 4(5), 5.

Question and writing rules


Module 06: Critical Thinking


Leveraging Search Technologies (105 points)

Google is the world’s premier search engine with more than 60,000 searches made every second, which equates to between five and six billion searches on any given day. As a result, the company is highly profitable earning around $100 billion in advertising revenue each year.

Research an organization located in the Kingdom Saudi Arabia and discuss the following:

1. Introduction

2. What type of search engine technology is the company using?

3. Discuss the benefits the company is gaining from using that technology.

4. What sort of metrics does the company use to measure the success of the utilized search engine technology?

5. What other metrics might the company consider using to measure the success of the utilized search engine technology?

6. Why other metrics might, the company consider using to measure the success of the utilized search engine technology?

7. conclusion

Essay should meet the following requirements:

· Be 5 pages in length, which does not include the title page, abstract, or required reference page, which is never a part of the content minimum requirements.

· Use APA (7th ed) style guidelines.

· Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least nine scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles

· Please include in the answer Appendix ( Graph or table …)


Writing rules

· Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs, headline (and conclusion).

· Make sure to include all the key points within conclusion section, which is discussed in the assignment. Your way of conclusion should be logical, flows from the body of the paper, and reviews the major points.

· I would like to see more depth for the question

· Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

· Plagiarism All work must be free of any form of plagiarism.

· Written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook

Required:

Chapter 6 in Information Technology for Management: On-Demand Strategies for Performance, Growth, and Sustainability

Wei, L., & Na, C. (2020). Personalized recommendation algorithm based on improved trustworthiness. 2020 International Conference on Robots & Intelligent System (ICRIS), 526–528.

Drivas, I. C., Sakas, D. P., Giannakopoulos, G. A., & Kyriaki-Manessi, D. (2020). Big Data Analytics for Search Engine Optimization. Big Data and Cognitive Computing, 4(5), 5.

IT for Management: On-Demand Strategies for Performance, Growth, and Sustainability

Eleventh Edition

Turban, Pollard, Wood

Chapter 6

Search, Semantic, and Recommendation Technology

Learning Objectives (1 of 5)

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Using Search Technology for Business Success

How Search Engines Work

Search Engine: an application for locating webpages or other content on a computer network using spiders.

Spiders: web bots (or bots); small computer programs designed to perform automated, repetitive tasks over the Internet.

Bots scan webpages and return information to be stored in a page repository.

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Using Search Technology for Business Success: Web Directories

Typically organized by categories.

Webpage content is usually reviewed by directory editors prior to listing.

Page Repository: data structure that stores and manages information from a large number of webpages, providing a fast and efficient means for accessing and analyzing the information at a later time.

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Figure 6.1: Components of crawler search engines (Grehan, 2002).

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Figure 6.2: Search engines use invested indexes to efficiently locate Web content based on search query terms

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Enterprise Search

Why Search is Important for Business

Enterprise search tools allow organizations to share information internally

Structured data: information with a high degree of organization, such that inclusion in a relational database is seamless and readily searchable by simple, straightforward search engine algorithms or other search operations.

Unstructured data: “messy data” not organized in a systematic or predefined way.

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Enterprise Search Security

Security Issues

Limited access to certain data via job function or clearance.

Request log audits should be conducted regularly for patterns or inconsistencies.

Enterprise Vendors

Used to treat data in large companies like Internet data but include information management tools.

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Enterprise Search Marketing

Recommendation Engines

Attempt to anticipate information users might be interested in to recommend new products, articles, videos, etc.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

A collection of online marketing strategies and tactics that promote brands by increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) through optimization and advertising.

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Search Engine Marketing Techniques

Basic search types:

Informational search

Navigational search

Transactional search

Strategies and tactics produce:

Organic search listings

Paid search listings

Pay-per-click(PPC)

(produce click-through rates)

Social media optimization

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Mobile and Social Search

Mobile Search

Technically configured mobile sites

Content designed for mobile devices

Social Search

Facebook new AI-based search features, including image search based on content and not tags

Intelligent Personal Assistant (IPA) and Voice Search

Alexa

Siri

Business looking into uses

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Web Search for Business

Business search with Google and Bing

Focused search in different formats

Filetype:[file extension]

Advanced search: narrowing down parameters

Search tools button: locations or time frames

Search history: queries and pages visited

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Business Trends

Real-time Search

Google Trends

Google Alerts

Twitter Search

Social Bookmarking Search

Page links tagged with keywords

Specialty Search: Vertical Search

Programmed to focus on webpages related to a particular topic and to drill down by crawling pages that other search engines are likely to ignore.

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Using Search Technology for Business Success

What is the primary difference between a web directory and a crawler based search engine?

What is the purpose of an index in a search engine?

Why are companies increasingly interested in enterprise search tools capable of handling unstructured data?

What is the difference between search engine optimization and PPC advertising?

Describe three different real-time search tools.

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Suggested Answers:

1. Crawler search engines rely on sophisticated computer programs called “spiders,” “crawlers,” or “bots” that surf the Internet, locating webpages, links, and other content that are then stored in the SE’s page repository.

 

Web directories are categorized listings of webpages created and maintained by humans. Because websites are only included after being reviewed by a person, it is less likely that search results will contain irrelevant websites.

 

2. An index helps search engines efficiently locate relevant pages containing keywords used in a search.

 

3. . Unstructured data, sometimes called messy data, refers to information that is not organized in a systematic or predefined way. Unstructured data accounts for about a majority of all the data present on computers today, which explains why companies are interested in tools that claim to handle it. Originally, enterprise search tools worked only with structured data. Many newer systems claim to work with unstructured information as well, although there is great variability in terms of how well they actually do this.

 

4. Businesses utilize search engine optimization (SEO) to improve their website’s organic listings on SERPs. No payments are made to the search engine service for organic search listings.

 

Pay-per-click (PPC) advertising refers to paid search listings where advertisers pay search engines based on how many people click on the ads.

5. Google Trends—Trends (google.com/trends) will help you identify current and historical interest in the topic by reporting the volume of search activity over time. Google Trends allows you to view the information for different time periods and geographic regions.

Google Alerts—Alerts (google.com/alerts) is an automated search tool for monitoring new Web content, news stories, videos, and blog posts about some topic. Users set up alerts by specifying a search term (e.g., a company name, product, or topic), how often they want to receive notices, and an e-mail address where the alerts are to be sent. When Google finds content that match the parameters of the search, users are notified via e-mail. Bing has a similar feature called News Alerts.

 

Twitter Search—You can leverage the crowd of over 650 million Twitter users to find information as well as gauge sentiment on a wide range of topics and issues in real time. Twitter’s search tool (twitter.com/search-home) looks similar to other search engines, and includes an advanced search mode.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 5)

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Search Engine Optimization: Google’s Search Factors (1 of 2)

On-Page (directly controlled by webpage creator)

Content

Quality, relevance, up-to-date

Functionality and Programming

Responsiveness, load time, secure connection, metadata, click-through-rate (CTR), keyword connection

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Search Engine Optimization: Google’s Search Factors (2 of 2)

Off-Page (influenced but not directly controlled by SEO professionals)

Relevance and Credibility

Backlinks to target site

Click-through-rate (CTR)

Dwell time (how longer user stays on page)

Personalized Search

Location-based

Past history

Social experience

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Content and Inbound Marketing

Inbound marketing

An approach to marketing that emphasizes SEO, content Marketing, and social media strategies.

Outbound marketing

Traditional approach using mass media advertising.

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Organic Search and Search Engine Optimization

Black Hat SEO

Gaming the system or tricking search engines into ranking a site higher than its content deserves.

Link spamming: generating backlinks toward SEO, not adding user value.

Keyword tricks: embedded high-value keywords to drive up traffic statistics.

Ghost text: text hidden in the background that will affect page ranking

Shadow (ghost or cloaked) pages: created pages optimized to attract lots of people through redirect

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Organic Search and Search Engine Optimization Review

Search engines use many different “clues” about the quality of a website’s content to determine how a page should be ranked in search results. Explain how a search engine uses specific factors to determine the quality of a website’s content.

Backlinks are an important ranking factor in SEO. Explain what a backlink is and why search engines use it to determine how websites are listed in SERPs.

Explain why so-called black hat SEO tactics are ultimately short-sighted and can lead to significant consequences for businesses that use them.

What is the fundamental difference between on-page and off-page SEO factors?

Explain why providing high quality, regularly updated content is the most important aspect of any SEO strategy.

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Suggested Answers:

1. One way of assessing the quality of a website is to use measures of popularity. This is based on the assumption that websites with good content will be more popular than sites with poor quality content. On the assumption that people are more likely to link to high-quality websites than poor-quality sites, one measure of popularity is the number of backlinks—external links that point back to a site.

 

Search engines attempt to determine if the content on a webpage is relevant to what the searcher is looking for. As with quality, the search engine cannot determine relevance directly, so algorithms have been developed to look for clues that suggest a site might be relevant. Factors which affect relevancy:

Keywords related to the search topic suggest relevant content.

Page titles: Words in the page title that are related to the topic suggest relevant content.

Relevant phrases in text: In addition to keywords, search engines look at the words and phrases on the page to determine relevance.

Amount of text on page that appears relevant: The proportion of relevant text to non-relevant text can influence relevance.

Backlinks from relevant sites and Web directories: Webpages that are listed in relevant categories of Web directories are more likely to be relevant because they were reviewed by human editors.

SERP click through rate (CTR): Searchers are more likely to click on listings that contain relevant content.

Onpage factor: Metadata (such as page titles, page descriptions) and descriptive URLs should reflect the page content. People use the information in search listings to determine if a link contains relevant information. This affects CTR.

Dwell time and bounce rate are impacted by how relevant a website’s content is. Long dwell times and short bounce rates suggest relevant content related to the search.

Search engines want their customers to be satisfied. As a result, SERP ranking is influenced by factors that impact user satisfaction. Factors that are likely to influence a search engine’s user satisfaction rating are:

Dwell time: Users that stay on a site longer are probably more satisfied.

Site speed: Slow page loading time on websites reduces satisfaction.

Reading level: Reading levels that are too high or too low frustrate users.

Hacked sites, malware, spam reduce user satisfaction significantly.

Website satisfaction surveys: Google created user satisfaction surveys that webmasters can embed in their websites. Positive responses to these surveys can improve ranking.

Barriers to content: Making people register, provide names, or fill out forms to get to content has a negative impact on user satisfaction.

Other factors: Too many ads, page-not-found errors, duplicate content/pages, content copied from other websites, and spam in comment sections all detract from user satisfaction.

 

2. A backlink is an external link that points back to a site. The use of backlinks is based on the assumption that people are more likely to link to high-quality websites than poor-quality sites. Since the number of backlinks is believed to be a heavily weighted factor, SEO professionals have developed several creative strategies for increasing legitimate backlinks to their websites while avoiding certain tactics that Google disapproves of. Google downgrades websites that use methods that artificially inflate their backlink count.

 

3. Black hat tactics try to trick the search engine into thinking a website has high-quality content, when in fact it does not. The search engines have stronger detection systems in place and when they are discovered, Google and other SEs will usually punish the business by dramatically lowering the website’s rank so that it does not show up on SERPs at all.

 

4. On-page SEO factors are elements that can be controlled by the web designer. Off-page factors can be influenced but not directly controlled by SEO professionals.

5. Perhaps the most important action an organization can take to improve its website’s ranking and satisfy website visitors is provide helpful content that is current and updated regularly. When SEO practices are combined with valuable content, websites become easier to find in search engines but, more importantly, contribute to building brand awareness, positive attitudes toward the brand, and brand loyalty.

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Learning Objectives (3 of 5)

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Pay-Per-Click Strategies

PPC advertising campaigns:

Set an overall budget

Create ads

Select associated keywords

Set up billing account information

Modify key words and ad copy based on results

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Quality Score Factors

Determined by factors related to the user’s experience.

Expected keyword click-through-rate (CTR)

The past CTR of your URL (web address)

Past effectiveness

Landing page quality

Relevance of keywords to ads

Relevance of keywords to customer search

Geographic performance in targeted regions

Ad performance on difference devices

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Pay-Per-Click Advertising Metrics

Click through rates (CTR): used to evaluate keyword selection and ad copy campaign decisions.

Keyword conversion: should lead to sales, not just visits.

Cost of customer acquisition (CoCA): amount of money spent to attract a paying customer.

Return on advertising spend (ROAS): overall financial effectiveness.

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Pay-Per-Click and Paid Search Strategies Review

What would most people say is the fundamental difference between organic listings and PPC listings on a search engine?

What are the five primary steps to creating a PPC advertising campaign on search engines?

In addition to the “bid price” for a particular keyword, what other factor(s) influence the likelihood that an advertisement will appear on a search results page? Why don’t search engines just rely on the advertisers bid when deciding what ads will appear on the search results page?

How do on-page factors influence the effectiveness of PPC advertisements?

What factors determine an ad’s quality score?

Describe four metrics that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a PPC advertising campaign.

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Suggested Answers:

1. Paid advertisements receive preferential page placement, but most major search engines differentiate organic search results from paid ad listings on SERPs with labels, shading, and placing the ads in a different place on the page.

 

2. There are five steps to creating a PPC advertising campaign on search engines:

1. Set an overall budget for the campaign.

2. Create ads—most search engine ads are text only.

3. Select keywords associated with the campaign.

4. Set up billing account information.

5. Modify key words and copy based on results.

 

3. In addition to selecting keywords and setting bid prices, advertisers also set parameters for the geographic location they want their ad to appear in and time of day. These factors allow for additional customer targeting designed to help advertisers reach the consumers most likely to purchase their products.

 

A quality score is determined by factors related to the user’s experience. Ads that are considered to be more relevant (and therefore more likely to be clicked on) will cost less and more likely run in a top position.

 

Relevant ads are good for all parties—the search engine makes more money from clicked ads, the advertiser experiences more customers visiting its site, and the customer is more likely to find what he or she is looking for.

 

4. The effectiveness of PPC ads is heavily influenced by factors on the webpages that ads are linked to. For instance, sometimes companies create product-oriented ads, but then link to the main page of their website instead of a page with information about the product in the ad. Other factors include landing page design, effectiveness of the call to action, and the quality of the shopping cart application. A PPC campaign will not be very effective if the website is not attractive to consumers once they reach it.

 

5. Quality scores are determined by factors related to ad relevance and user experience factors. According to Google, quality scores are determined by several factors:

 Expected keyword CTR

 The past CTR of your URL

 Past effectiveness (overall CTR of ads and keywords in the account)

 Landing page quality (relevance, transparency, ease of navigation, etc.)

 Relevance of keywords to ads

 Relevance of keywords to customer search query

 Geographic performanceaccount success in geographic regions being targeted.

 How well ads perform on different devices (quality scores are calculated for mobile, desktop/laptop, and tablets).

6. Click through rates (CTRs)—By themselves, CTRs do not measure the financial performance of an ad campaign. But they are useful for evaluating many of the decisions that go into a campaign, such as keyword selection and ad copy.

 

Keyword conversion—High CTRs are not always good if they do not lead to sales. Since the cost of the campaign is based on how many people click an ad, you want to select keywords that lead to sales (conversions), not just site visits. PPC advertisers monitor which keywords lead to sales and focus on those in future campaigns.

 

Cost of customer acquisition (CoCA)—This metric represents the amount of money spent to attract a paying customer. To calculate CoCA for a PPC campaign, you divide the total budget of the campaign by the number of customers who purchased something from your site. For instance, if you spent $1,000 on a campaign that yielded 40 customers, your CoCA would be $1,000/40 5 $25 per customer.

 

Return on advertising spend (ROAS)—The campaign’s overall financial effectiveness is evaluated with ROAS (revenue /cost). For example, if $1,000 was spent on a campaign that led to $6,000 in sales, ROAS would be $6,000/$1,000 5 $6. In other words, for every dollar spent on PPC ads, $6 was earned.

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Learning Objectives (4 of 5)

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A Search for Meaning—Semantic Technology

Semantic Web

Meaningful computing using metadata: application of natural language processing (NLP) to support information retrieval, analytics, and data-integration that compass both numerical and “unstructured” information

Semantic Search

Process of typing something into a search engine and getting more results than just those that feature the exact keyword typed into the search box

Metadata

Data that describes and provides information about other data.

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Evolution of the Web

Table 6.2 Evolution of the Web
Web 1.0 (The Initial Web)
A Web of Pages
Pages or documents are “hyperlinked,” making it easier than ever before to access connected information.
Web 2.0 (The Social Web)
A Web of Applications
New applications and technologies allow people to easily create, share, and organize information.
Web 3.0 (The Semantic Web)
A Web of Data
Using metadata tags, artificial intelligence, natural language processing, and other semantic tools, computers can be used to access specific information across platforms and applications, regardless of the original structure of the file, page or document. It turns the Web into a giant readable database.

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The Languages of Web 3.0

Resource description framework (RDF)

Used to represent information about resources

Web ontology language (OWL)

Language used to categorize and accurately identify the nature of Internet things

SPARCQL protocol

Used to write programs that can retrieve and manipulate data scored in RDF

RDF query language (SPARCQL)

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Semantic Web and Semantic Search

In addition to metadata tags, semantic search engines use a variety of strategies to find meaning:

natural language processing

contextual cues

synonyms

word variations

concept matching

specialized queries

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Semantic Search Features and Benefits (1 of 2)

Semantic Search Features

Related searches/queries: alternatives provided

Reference results: reference material provided

Semantically annotated results: search terms and related terms are highlighted

Full-text similarity search: a full block of text can be searched

Search on semantic/syntactic annotations:

<organization> center </organization>

Johnson Research Center

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Semantic Search Features and Benefits (2 of 2)

Semantic Search Features

Concept search: returns results related to concept

Ontology-based search: uses relationships between data “What vegetables are green?”

Semantic Web search: uses tagged data

Faceted search: filtering based on predefined facets

Clustered search: similar to facet search but without predefined facets

Natural language search: extracts keywords from full question

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Semantic Web For Business

Semantic Web offers opportunities and challenges for businesses

Must optimize websites for semantic search

Metadata optimization produces richer and more attractive SERP listings (rich snippets)

Detailed organic search listings produce greater CTRs

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A Search for Meaning—Semantic Technology

List five different practical ways that semantic technology is enhancing the search experience of users.

How do metadata tags facilitate more accurate search results?

Briefly describe the three evolutionary stages of the Internet?

Define the words “context,” “personalization,” and “vertical search” and explain how they make for more powerful and accurate search results.

What are the three languages developed by the W3C and associated with the semantic Web?

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Suggested Answers:

1. Grimes (2010) provides a list of practical benefits that could result from semantic search technology:

Related searches/queries. The engine suggests alternative search queries that may produce information related to the original query. Search engines may also ask you, “Did you mean: [search term]?” if it detects a misspelling. (This already happens with some.)

Reference results. The search engine suggests reference material related to the query, such as a dictionary definition, Wikipedia pages, maps, reviews, or stock quotes.

Semantically annotated results. Returned pages contain highlighting of search terms, but also related words or phrases that may not have appeared in the original query. These can be used in future searches simply by clicking on them.

Full-text similarity search. Users can submit a block of text or even a full document to find similar content.

Search on semantic/syntactic annotations. This approach would allow a user to indicate the “syntactic role the term plays—for instance, the part-of-speech (noun, verb, etc.)—or its semantic meaning—whether it’s a company name, location, or event.” For instance, a keyword search on the word “center” would produce too many results. Instead, a search query could be written using a syntax such as the following:

<organization> center </organization>

This would only return documents where the word “center” was part of an organization’s name. Google currently allows you to do something similar to specify the kind of files you are looking for (e.g., filetype:pdf)

Concept search. Search engines could return results with related concepts. For instance, if the original query was “Tarantino films,” documents would be returned that contain the word “movies” even if not the word “films.”

Ontology-based search. Ontologies define the relationships between data. An ontology is based on the concept of “triples”: subject, predicate, and object. This would allow the search engine to answer questions such as “What vegetables are green?” The search engine would return results about “broccoli,” “spinach,” “peas,” “asparagus,” “Brussels sprouts,” and so on.

Semantic Web search. This approach would take advantage of content tagged with metadata as previously described in this section. Search results are likely to be more accurate than keyword matching.

Faceted search. Faceted search provides a means of refining results based on predefined categories called facets. For instance, a search on “colleges” might result in options to “refine this search by. . .” location, size, degrees offered, private or public, and so on. Faceted search tools available today tend to focus on a specific domain, such as Wikipedia or Semidico, a search tool for biomedical literature.

Clustered search. This is similar to a faceted search, but without the predefined categories. Visit Carrot2.org to better understand this concept. After conducting a search, click on the “foamtree” option to see how you can refine your search. The refining options are extracted from the content in pages of the initial search.

Natural language search. Natural language search tools attempt to extract words from questions such as “How many countries are there in Europe?” and create a semantic representation of the query. Initially, this is what people hoped search engines would evolve toward, but Grimes wonders if we have become so accustomed to typing just one or two words into our queries that writing out a whole question may seem like too much work.

 

2. Much of the world’s digital information is stored in files structured so that they can only be read by the programs that created them. With metadata, the content of these files can be labeled with tags describing the nature of the information, where it came from, or how it is arranged, essentially making the Web one large database that can be read and used by a wide variety of applications.

 

The semantic Web will make it possible to access information about real things (people, places, contracts, books, chemicals, etc.) without worrying about the details associated with the nature or structure of the data files, pages, and databases where these things are described or contained (Hendler and Berners-Lee, 2010).

 

3. The first stage was Web 1.0 (The Initial Web) – A Web of Pages. Pages or documents are “hyperlinked,” making it easier than ever before to access connected information.

The first stage was Web 2.0 (The Social Web) – A Web of Applications. Applications are created that allow people to easily create, share, and organize information.

 

The third stage is Web 3.0 (The Semantic Web) – A Web of Data. Information within documents or pages is tagged with metadata, allowing users to access specific information across platforms, regardless of the original structure of the fi le, page, or document that contains it. It turns the Web into one giant database.

 

4. Context defines the intent of the user; for example, trying to purchase music, to find a job, to share memories with friends and family

 

Personalization refers to the user’s personal characteristics that impact how relevant the content, commerce, and community are to an individual.

 

Vertical search, as you have read, focuses on finding information in a particular content area, such as travel, finance, legal, and medical.

 

The current Web is disjointed, requiring us to visit different websites to get content, engage in commerce, and interact with our social networks (community). The future Web will use …

Information Technology
for Management

On-Demand Strategies for Performance,
Growth and Sustainability

Eleventh Edition

Eleventh Edition

Information Technology
for Management

On-Demand Strategies for Performance,
Growth and Sustainability

E F R A I M T U R B A N

C A R O L P O L L A R D
Appalachian State University

G R E G O R Y W O O D
Canisius College

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EXECUTIVE EDITOR Lise Johnson
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ISBN: 978-1-118-89079-0 (PBK)
ISBN: 978-1-119-39783-0 (EVALC)

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:

Names: Turban, Efraim, author. | Pollard, Carol (Carol E.), author. | Wood,
Gregory R., author.
Title: Information technology for management : on-demand strategies for
performance, growth and sustainability / Efraim Turban, Carol Pollard,
Gregory R. Wood.
Description: 11th edition. | Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, 2018. |
Includes bibliographical references and index. |
Identifiers: LCCN 2017037711 (print) | LCCN 2017046158 (ebook) | ISBN
9781118890868 (epub) | ISBN 9781119172390 (pdf) | ISBN 9781118890790 (pbk.)
Subjects: LCSH: Management information systems.
Classification: LCC T58.6 (ebook) | LCC T58.6 .T765 2017 (print) | DDC
658.4/038011—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017037711

The inside back cover will contain printing identification and country of origin if omitted from this
page. In addition, if the ISBN on the back cover differs from the ISBN on this page, the one on the
back cover is correct.

v

Brief Contents

PREFACE xiii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xviii

PART 1 Reshaping Enterprises and Consumers
in the On-Demand Economy

1 Disruptive IT Impacts Companies,
Competition, and Careers 1

2 Information Systems, IT Architecture, Data
Governance, and Cloud Computing 25

3 Data Management, Data Analytics,
and Business Intelligence 65

4 Networks, Collaborative Technology,
and the Internet of Things 101

5 Cybersecurity and Risk Management
Technology 127

PART 2 Winning, Engaging, and Retaining
Consumers for Growth

6 Search, Semantic, and Recommendation
Technology 165

7 Web 2.0 and Social Technology 199

8 Retail, E-commerce, and Mobile Commerce
Technology 240

PART 3 Optimizing Performance, Processes,
and Productivity

9 Functional Business Systems 269

10 Enterprise Systems 300

11 Data Visualization and Geographic
Information Systems 331

PART 4 Managing Business Relationships,
Projects, and Ethical Responsibilities

12 IT Strategy, Sourcing, and Strategic
Technology Trends 354

13 Systems Development and Project
Management 385

14 IT Ethics, Privacy, and Sustainability 417

GLOSSARY 443
ORGANIZATION INDEX 448
NAME INDEX 450
SUBJECT INDEX 451

vi

PREFACE xiii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xviii

PART 1 Reshaping Enterprises
and Consumers in the On-Demand
Economy

1 Disruptive IT Impacts Companies,
Competition, and Careers 1

Case 1.1 Opening Case: Uber and Airbnb Revolutionize
Business Models in the On-Demand Economy 3

1.1 Doing Business in the On-Demand Economy 4
Growth of the On-Demand Economy 5
Digital Business Models 6
IT’s Role in the On-Demand Economy 7
IT Business Objectives 8

1.2 Business Process Improvement and Competitive
Advantage 8
What Is a Business Process? 9
Improving Business Processes 9
Don’t Automate, Obliterate! 10
Gaining a Competitive Advantage 11
Software Support for BPM 13

1.3 IT Innovation and Disruption 13
Social–Mobile–Analytics–Cloud (SMAC) Model 13
Technology Mega Trends 14
Lessons Learned from Companies Using Disruptive
Technologies 16

1.4 IT and You 17
On-Demand Workers 17
IT Adds Value to Your Performance and Career 19
Becoming an Informed IT User 21

Case 1.2 Business Case: The Internet of Things Comes
to the NFL 23

Case 1.3 Video Case: Knowing More and Doing More 24

2 Information Systems,
IT Architecture, Data Governance,
and Cloud Computing 25

Case 2.1 Opening Case: Detoxing Location-Based
Advertising Data at MEDIATA 27

2.1 IS Concepts and Classification 28

Components of an IS 29
Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom 30
Types of ISs 31
Transaction Processing System (TPS) 32
Management Information System (MIS) 33
Decision Support System (DSS) 34
Executive Information System (EIS) 35
ISS Exist within Corporate Culture 36

2.2 IT Infrastructure, IT Architecture, and Enterprise
Architecture 37
EA Helps to Maintain Sustainability 38
Developing an Enterprise Architecture (EA) 41

2.3 Information Management and Data
Governance 42
Information Management Harnesses
Scattered Data 43
Reasons for Information Deficiencies 43
Factors Driving the Shift from Silos to Sharing
and Collaboration 45
Business Benefits of Information Management 45
Data Governance: Maintaining Data Quality
and Cost Control 46

2.4 Data Centers and Cloud Computing 48
Data Centers 48
Integrating Data to Combat Data Chaos 50
Cloud Computing 52
Selecting a Cloud Vendor 52
Cloud Infrastructure 54
Issues in Moving Workloads from the Enterprise
to the Cloud 54

2.5 Cloud Services and Virtualization 55
Anything as a Service (XAAS) Models 55
Going Cloud 58
Virtualization and Virtual Machines 58

Case 2.2 Business Case: Data Chaos Creates Risk 62
Case 2.3 Video Case: Cloud Computing at Coca-Cola Is

Changing Everything 63

3 Data Management, Data Analytics,
and Business Intelligence 65

Case 3.1 Opening Case: Coca-Cola Strategically Manages
Data to Retain Customers and Reduce Costs 66

3.1 Data Management and Database Technologies 69
Database Management Systems and SQL 69
DBMS and Data Warehousing Vendors
Respond to Latest Data Demands 72

Contents

C O N T E N T S v i i

3.2 Centralized and Distributed Database
Architectures 73
Garbage In, Garbage Out 75
Data Ownership and Organizational Politics 76
Data Life Cycle and Data Principles 77
Master Data and Master Data Management 78

3.3 Data Warehouses 79
Procedures to Prepare EDW Data for Analytics 80
Building a Data Warehouse 80
Real-Time Support from an Active Data
Warehouse 81

3.4 Big Data Analytics and Data Discovery 83
Human Expertise and Judgment are Needed 85
Data and Text Mining 88
Creating Business Value 88
Text Analytics Procedure 90
Analytics Vendor Rankings 90

3.5 Business Intelligence and
Electronic Records Management 91
Business Benefits of BI 92
Common Challenges: Data Selection
and Quality 92
Aligning BI Strategy with Business Strategy 92
BI Architecture and Analytics 93
Electronic Records Management 94
Legal Duty to Retain Business Records 94
ERM Best Practices 94
ERM Benefits 95
ERM for Disaster Recovery,
Business Continuity, and Compliance 95

Case 3.2 Business Case: Big Data Analytics is the “Secret
Sauce” for Revitalizing McDonald’s 98

Case 3.3 Video Case: Verizon Improves Its
Customer Experience with Data Driven
Decision-Making 99

4 Networks, Collaborative
Technology, and the Internet
of Things 101

Case 4.1 Opening Case: Sony Builds an IPv6 Network
to Fortify Competitive Edge 102

4.1 Network Fundamentals 104
Network Types 104
Intranets, Extranets, and Virtual Private
Networks 105
Network Terminology 105
Functions Supported by Business Networks 106
Quality of Service 107

4.2 Internet Protocols (IP), APIs, and Network
Capabilities 109

Comparing 3G, 4G, 4G LTE, and 5G Network
Standards 110
Circuit versus Packet Switching 111
Application Program Interfaces and Operating
Systems 111

4.3 Mobile Networks and Near-Field
Communication 113
Increase in Mobile Network Traffic and Users 114
Higher Demand for High-Capacity Mobile
Networks 115
Mobile Infrastructure 115
Two Components of Wireless Infrastructure 116
Business Use of Near-Field Communication 117
Choosing Mobile Network Solutions 118

4.4 Collaborative Technologies and the Internet
of Things 119
Virtual Collaboration 120
Group Work and Decision Processes 120
The Internet of Things (IoT) 121
IoT Sensors, Smart Meters, and the Smart Grid 121

Case 4.2 Business Case: Google Maps API for
Business 125

Case 4.3 Video Case: Small Island Telecom Company
Goes Global 126

5 Cybersecurity and Risk
Management Technology 127

Case 5.1 Opening Case: Yahoo Wins the Gold and Silver
Medal for the Worst Hacks in History! 129

5.1 The Face and Future of Cyberthreats 130
Intentional Threats 132
Unintentional Threats 132
Hacking 133
Cyber Social Engineering and Other Related
Web-Based Threats 134
Denial-of-Service 137
Insider and Privilege Misuse 137
Physical Theft or Loss 138
Miscellaneous Errors 138
New Attack Vectors 138

5.2 Cyberattack Targets and Consequences 139
“High-Profile” and “Under-the-Radar” Attacks 139
Critical Infrastructure Attacks 140
Theft of Intellectual Property 141
Identity Theft 142
Bring Your Own Device 142
Social Media Attacks 144

5.3 Cyber Risk Management 146
IT Defenses 146
Business Continuity Planning 149
Government Regulations 149

v i i i C O N T E N T S

5.4 Defending Against Fraud 150
Occupational Fraud Prevention
and Detection 151
General Controls 152
Internal Controls 153
Cyber Defense Strategies 153
Auditing Information Systems 155

5.5 Frameworks, Standards, and Models 155
Risk Management and IT Governance
Frameworks 155
Industry Standards 157
IT Security Defense-In-Depth Model 157

Case 5.2 Business Case: Lax Security at LinkedIn
Exposed 161

Case 5.3 Video Case: Botnets, Malware Security, and
Capturing Cybercriminals 163

PART 2 Winning, Engaging, and
Retaining Consumers for Growth

6 Search, Semantic, and
Recommendation Technology 165

Case 6.1 Opening Case: Mint.com Uses Search
Technology to Rank Above Established
Competitors 166

6.1 Using Search Technology for Business
Success 168
How Search Engines Work 168
Web Directories 168
How Crawler Search Engines Work 169
Why Search Is Important for Business 172

6.2 Organic Search and Search Engine
Optimization 178
Strategies for Search Engine Optimization 178
Content and Inbound Marketing 180
Black Hat versus White Hat SEO: Ethical Issues
in Search Engine Optimization 181

6.3 Pay-Per-Click and Paid Search Strategies 182
Creating a PPC Advertising Campaign 182
Metrics for Paid Search Advertising 184

6.4 A Search for Meaning—Semantic Technology 184
What Is the Semantic Web? 185
The Language(s) of Web 3.0 185
Semantic Web and Semantic Search 186
Semantic Web for Business 187

6.5 Recommendation Engines 188
Recommendation Filters 189

Case 6.2 Business Case: Deciding What to Watch—Video
Recommendations at Netflix 195

Case 6.3 Video Case: Power Searching with
Google 196

7 Web 2.0 and Social
Technology 199

Case 7.1 Opening Case: Social Customer Service Takes
Off at KLM 200

7.1 Web 2.0—The Social Web 201
The Constantly Changing Web 201
Invention of the World Wide Web 202
A Platform for Services and Social Interaction 202
Emergence of Social Applications, Networks,
and Services 203
Why Managers Should Understand Web
Technology 205
Communicating on the Web 206
Social Media Applications and Services 207
Social Media Is More than Facebook, YouTube, and
Twitter 207
With Web 2.0, Markets are Conversations 209

7.2 Social Networking Services and Communities 210
The Power of the Crowd 212
Crowdfunding 212
Social Networking Services 213
Facebook Dominates Social Networking 214
Google Takes on Facebook with G+ 216
Be in the Now with Snapchat 217
And Now for Something Different: Second Life 218
Private Social Networks 219
Future of Social Networking Systems 220

7.3 Engaging Consumers with Blogs and
Microblogs 220
What Is the Purpose of a Blog? 220
Blogging and Public Relations 222
Reading and Subscribing to Blogs 222
Blogging Platforms 222
Microblogs 223
Twitter 223
Tumblr Blogs 225

7.4 Mashups, Social Metrics, and
Monitoring Tools 226
What Makes a Mashup Social 226
RSS Technology 227
Social Monitoring Services 227

7.5 Enterprise 2.0: Workplace Collaboration and
Knowledge Sharing 229
Tools for Meetings and Discussions 230
Social Tools for Information Retrieval and
Knowledge Sharing 230
Social Bookmarking Tools 231
Content Creation and Sharing 232

Case 7.2 Business Case: Facebook Helps Songkick Rock
the Ticket Sales Industry 236

Case 7.3 Business Case: AT&T’s “It Can Wait” Campaign
against Distracted Driving 237

C O N T E N T S i x

8 Retail, E-commerce, and Mobile
Commerce Technology 240

Case 8.1 Opening Case: Macy’s Races Ahead with Mobile
Retail Strategies 241

8.1 Retailing Technology 243
Keeping Up with Consumer Demands and
Behavior 243
The Omni-Channel Retailing Concept 244

8.2 Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-commerce 246
Online Banking 246
International and Multiple-Currency
Banking 246
Online Recruiting 246
Issues in Online Retailing 250
Online Business and Marketing Planning 250

8.3 Business-to-Business (B2B) E-commerce and
E-procurement 251
Sell-Side Marketplaces 251
E-Sourcing 252
E-Procurement 252
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Systems 253
Public and Private Exchanges 253

8.4 Mobile Commerce 253
Information: Competitive Advantage in Mobile
Commerce 255
Mobile Entertainment 258
Hotel Services and Travel Go Wireless 259
Mobile Social Networking 259

8.5 Mobile Transactions and Financial Services 260
Mobile Payment Systems 260
Mobile Banking and Financial Services 262
Short Codes 263
Security Issues 263

Case 8.2 Business Case: Chegg’s Mobile Strategy 266
Case 8.3 Video Case: Searching with Pictures

Using MVS 267

PART 3 Optimizing Performance,
Processes, and Productivity

9 Functional Business Systems 269
Case 9.1 Opening Case: Ducati Redesigns Its

Operations 271
9.1 Business Management Systems and Functional

Business Systems 272
Business Management Systems (BMSs) 273
Management Levels 273
Business Functions vs. Cross-Functional Business
Processes 274
Transaction Processing Systems 275

9.2 Production and Operations Management
Systems 277
Transportation Management Systems 278
Logistics Management 278
Inventory Control Systems 279
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing and
Manufacturing Execution Systems 281

9.3 Sales and Marketing Systems 282
Data-Driven Marketing 284
Sales and Distribution Channels 284
Social Media Customer Service 284
Marketing Management 285

9.4 Accounting, Finance, and Regulatory Systems 286
Financial Disclosure: Reporting and
Compliance 286
Fraud Prevention and Detection 289
Auditing Information Systems 291
Financial Planning and Budgeting 291

9.5 Human Resource Systems, Compliance, and
Ethics 293
HR Information Systems 293
Management and Employee Development 295
HR Planning, Control, and Management 295

Case 9.2 Business Case: HSBC Combats Fraud in Split-
second Decisions 297

Case 9.3 Video Case: United Rentals Optimizes Its
Workforce with Human Capital Management 298

10 Enterprise Systems 300
Case 10.1 Opening Case: 3D Printing Drives the “Always-

On” Supply Chain 301
10.1 Enterprise Systems 303

Implementation Challenges of Enterprise
Systems 305
Investing in Enterprise Systems 305
Implementation of Best Practices 306
Enterprise Systems Insights 307

10.2 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 307
Brief History of ERP 308
Technology Perspective 308
Achieving ERP Success 311

10.3 Supply Chain Management Systems 313
Managing the Flow of Materials, Data,
and Money 315
Order Fulfillment and Logistics 315
Steps in the Order Fulfillment Process 315
Innovations Driving Supply Chain Strategic
Priorities 316

10.4 Customer Relationship Management Systems 319
How are CRM Apps Different from ERP? Why are they
Different? 319
CRM Technology Perspective 320

x C O N T E N T S

Customer Acquisition and Retention 320
CRM for a Competitive Edge 320
Common CRM Mistakes: How to Avoid
Them 321
Justifying CRM 322

10.5 Enterprise Social Platforms 323
Growth of Enterprise Social Investments
and Markets 323
Sharepoint 324
Oracle’s Social Network 326
Jive 326
Chatter 326

Case 10.2 Business Case: Lowe’s Fresh Approach to
Supply Chain Management 328

Case 10.3 Video Case: Procter & Gamble: Creating
Conversations in the Cloud with 4.8 Billion
Consumers 329

11 Data Visualization and Geographic
Information Systems 331

Case 11.1 Opening Case: Safeway and PepsiCo
Collaborate to Reduce Stock Outages using Data
Visualization 332

11.1 Data Visualization and Learning 334
Learning, Exploration, and Discovery with
Visualization 336
Data Discovery Market Separates from the
BI Market 336
How Is Data Visualization Used in Business? 340
Data Visualization Tools 341

11.2 Enterprise Data Mashups 342
Mashup Architecture 343
Why Do Business Users Need Data Mashup
Technology? 344
Enterprise Mashup Technology 344

11.3 Digital Dashboards 345
Dashboards are Real Time 347
How Operational and Strategic
Dashboards Work 348
Benefits of Digital Dashboards 348

11.4 Geographic Information Systems and
Geospatial Data 349
Geocoding 350
GIS Is Not Your Grandfather’s Map 350
Infrastructure and Location-Aware Collection
of Geospatial Data 350
Applying GIS in Business 351

Case 11.2 Visualization Case: Are You Ready for
Football? 353

Case 11.3 Video Case: The Beauty of Data
Visualization—Data Detective 353

PART 4 Managing Business
Relationships, Projects, and Ethical
Responsibilities

12 IT Strategy, Sourcing, and Strategic
Technology Trends 354

Case 12.1 Opening Case: Intel Reaps Rewards from
Sustainable IT Strategy 355

12.1 IT Strategic Planning 357
Value Drivers 358
IT Strategic Plan Objectives 358
IT and Business Disconnects 359
Corporate and IT Governance 359
Reactive Approach to IT Investments Will Fail 359
IT Strategic Planning Process 359

12.2 Aligning IT with Business Objectives 362
Achieving and Sustaining a Competitive
Advantage 364

12.3 IT Sourcing Strategies 367
Sourcing and Cloud Services 368
Factors Driving Outsourcing 369
Outsourcing Risks and Hidden Costs 370
Offshoring 370
Outsourcing Life Cycle 371
Managing IT Vendor Relationships 373
Contracts: Get Everything in Writing 373

12.4 Balanced Scorecard 374
The Balanced Scorecard 374
Using the Balance Scorecard 375
Applying the BSC 377

12.5 Strategic Technology Trends 378
Strategic Technology Scanning 380
Finding Strategic Technologies 380

Case 12.2 Business Case: Cisco IT Improves Strategic
Vendor Management 382

Case 12.3 Data Analysis: Third-Party versus Company-
Owned Offshoring 383

13 Systems Development and Project
Management 385

Case 13.1 Opening Case: Denver International Airport
Learns from Mistakes Made in Failed Baggage-
Handling System Project 386

13.1 System Development Life Cycle 388
Stages of the SDLC 388

13.2 Systems Development Methodologies 391
Waterfall Model 391
Object-Oriented Analysis and Design 392
Agile Methodology 392

C O N T E N T S x i

The DevOps Approach to Systems
Development 394

13.3 Project Management Fundamentals 395
What Is a Project? 396
Choosing Projects 396
The Triple Constraint 397
The Project Management Framework 397

13.4 Initiating, Planning, and Executing Projects 399
Project Initiation 400
Project Planning 400
Project Execution 403

13.5 Monitoring/Controlling and Closing
Projects 404
Project Monitoring and Controlling 404
Project Closing or Post Mortem 407
Why Projects Fail 408
IT Project Management Mistakes 410

Case 13.2 Business Case: Steve Jobs’ Shared Vision
Project Management Style 412

Case 13.3 Demo Case: Mavenlink Project Management
and Planning Software 413

14 IT Ethics, Privacy, and
Sustainability 417

Case 14.1 Opening Case: Lessons Learned: How Google
Glass Raised Risk and Privacy Challenges 418

14.1 IT Ethics 420
Ethical versus Unethical Behavior 420
Competing Responsibilities 423

14.2 Privacy and Civil Rights 424
Privacy and the New Privacy
Paradox 424
Social Media Recruiting 425
Legal Note: Civil Rights 426
Competing Legal Concerns 427
Financial Organizations Must Comply with Social
Media Guidelines 428

14.3 Technology Addictions and Focus
Management 430
Digital Distractions and Loss of Focus 430
Focus Management 430

14.4 ICT and Sustainable Development 432
Global Temperature Rising Too Much
Too Fast 432
IT and Global Warming 433
Technology to Transform Business and
Society 436
Next Wave of Disruption Will Be More
Disruptive 438

Case 14.2 Business Case: Android Auto and
CarPlay Keep Drivers Safe, Legal, and
Productive 439

Case 14.3 Video Case: IT Ethics in the
Workplace 440

GLOSSARY 443
ORGANIZATION INDEX 448
NAME INDEX 450
SUBJECT INDEX 451

xiii

Information Technology for Management discusses a variety of
business strategies and explains how they rely on data, digital
technology, and mobile devices to support them in the on-
demand economy. Our goal is to provide students from any
business discipline with a strong foundation for understand-
ing the critical role that digital technology plays in enhancing
business sustainability, profitability, and growth and excel in
their careers. Enabling technologies discussed in this textbook
include the following:

• Performance Combining the latest capabilities in big data
analytics, reporting, collaboration, search, and digital com-
munication helps enterprises be more agile and cuts costs to
optimize business performance and profitability.

• Growth Strategic technologies enable business to create
new core competencies, expand their markets, and move
into new markets to experience exponential growth in the
on-demand economy.

• Sustainability Cloud services are fundamental to sus-
taining business profitability and growth in today’s on-
demand economy. They play a critical role in managing
projects and sourcing agreements, respecting personal pri-
vacy, encouraging social responsibility, and attracting and
engaging customers across multimedia channels to promote
sustainable business performance and growth.

In this 11th edition, students learn, explore, and understand
the importance of IT’s role in supporting the three essential
components of business performance improvement: technology,
business processes, and people.

What’s New in the
11th Edition?
In the 11th edition of IT for Management, we present and dis-
cuss concepts in a comprehensive yet easy-to-understand for-
mat by actively engaging students through a wide selection of
case studies, interactive figures, video animations, tech notes,
concept check questions, online and interactive exercises, and
critical thinking questions. We have enhanced the 11th edition
in the following ways:

New Author Dr. Carol Pollard, Professor of Computer Infor-
mation Systems at the Walker College of Business and former
Executive Director of the Center for Applied Research in Emerg-
ing Technologies (CARET) at Appalachian State University in
North Carolina, has taken the helm for the 11th edition. Carol

has applied her innovative teaching and learning techniques to
create a stronger pedagogical focus and more engaging format
for the text.
Diverse Audience IT for Management is directed toward
undergraduate, introductory MBA courses, and Executive Educa-
tion courses in Management Information Systems and General
Business programs. Concepts are explained in a straightforward
way, and interactive elements, tools, and techniques provide
tangible resources that appeal to all levels of students.
Strong Pedagogical Approach To encourage improved learn-
ing outcomes, we employed a blended learning approach, in
which different types of delivery and learning methods, enabled
and supported by technology, are blended with traditional
learning methods. For example, case study and theoretical
content are presented visually, textually, and/or interactively
to enable different groups of students to use different learning
strategies in different combinations to fit their individual learn-
ing style and enhance their learning. Throughout the book,
content has been reorganized to improve development of the
topics and improve understanding and readability. A large
number of images that did not enhance understanding have
been removed and replaced with informative and interactive
figures and tables that better convey critical concepts.
Leading-Edge Content Prior to and during the writing pro-
cess, we consulted with a number of vendors, IT professionals,
and managers who are hands-on users of leading technologies,
to learn about their IT/business successes, challenges, experi-
ences, and recommendations. To integrate the feedback of
these business and IT professionals, new or updated chapter
opening and closing cases have been added to many of the
chapters along with the addition of relevant, leading-edge
content in the body of the chapters.
New Technologies and Expanded Topics New to this edition
are the IT framework, business process reengineering, geoco-
ding, systems developments methodologies, including Water-
fall, object-oriented analysis, Agile and DevOps, advances
in Search Technology, the growth of Mobile Commerce and
Mobile Payment Systems, the Always-On Supply Chain, and
the Project Management framework. In addition, with more
purchases and transactions starting online and attention being
a scarce resource, students learn how search, semantic, and
recommendation technologies function to improve revenue.
Table P-1 provides a detailed list of new and expanded topics.
Useful Tools and Techniques New to this edition is a feature
we call the “IT Toolbox.” This involves the provision of a set of
useful tools or techniques relevant to chapter content. Collec-
tively, these tools and techniques equip readers with a suite of
IT tools that will be useful in their university classes, workplace,
and personal life.

Preface

xiv P R E F A C E

Chapter New and Expanded IT and Business Topics Innovative Enterprises
1. Disruptive IT Impacts

Companies, Competition,
and Careers

• IT’s role in the on-demand economy
• Business process improvement
• Business process re-engineering
• SMAC model
• Nature of on-demand work
• Becoming an informed IT user
• Technology mega trends

• Uber
• Airbnb
• FitBit
• NFL
• Teradata

2. Information Systems, IT Archi-
tecture, Data Governance, and
Cloud Computing

• IS concepts and framework
• Information, knowledge, wisdom model
• Software-defined data center

• Mediata
• National Climatic Data center
• U.S. National Security Agency
• Apple
• Uber
• WhatsApp
• Slack
• Vanderbilt University Medical Center
• Coca-Cola

TA B L E P – 1 Overview of New and Expanded Topics and Innovative Enterprises Discussed in the Chapters

Engaging Students
to Assure Learning
The 11th edition of Information Technology for Management
engages students with up-to-date coverage of the most impor-
tant IT trends today. Over the years, this IT textbook has dis-
tinguished itself with an emphasis on illustrating the use of
cutting-edge business technologies for supporting and achiev-
ing managerial goals and …