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IntroductionChemistry is divided into two main branches: organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry. Organic chemistry is the studyof carbon compounds, although some of these are included in the study of inorganic chemistry. Among these compoundsare carbon dioxide and its derivatives, the carbonates, cyanides, carbon monoxide, and carbon disulfide.Organic chemists deal with compounds which are relatively large. The properties of these compounds depend on thespatial arrangement of the atoms within the molecules. Therefore, the system of nomenclature used for organic chemistrymust be detailed and complex.Inorganic compounds, on the other hand, are commonly named by simply specifying the proportions of the elements thatmake up the compound. The two branches of chemistry have distinctly different but compatible systems of nomenclature,but the objective of both systems is to name each compound in such a way that the chemical identity of the specificcompound is known with certainty.A. Nomenclature of CationsCations are formed when an atom loses one or more electrons. These ions will have a positive electrical charge, and arenormally formed from the atoms of metals.A cation, if present, is always listed first in both names and formulas of compounds. These ions have the same name asthe elements from which they are derived, without any alteration. When writing the symbol of a cation, the number ofelectrons lost in its formation is indicated by a superscript Arabic numeral followed by a positive sign. (For those ionsformed by losing one electron, thus with a charge of positive one, the numeral 1 is commonly omitted.)Examples: Na+”en ay positive”Ca2+ “cee ay two positive”Some elements, particularly those in the “d” block of the periodic table (transition elements) form more than one cation.This is because the atom may, under different circumstances, lose a different number of electrons. To name the cations ofsuch an element, a system known as Stock notation is preferred. A Roman numeral, representing the number of electronslost and thus the positive charge on the ion, is placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the element.Examples: Fe2+ iron(II) “iron two”Fe3+ iron(III) “iron three”Cu1+ copper(I)Cu2+ copper(II)Hg22+ mercury(I)Hg2+ mercury(II)Note: The mercury(I) cation consists of two mercury species covalently bonded together. Each of these atomshas lost one electron so that the charge on the pair of 1+ ions is 2+: Hg22+ mercury(I)In the IUPAC system, it is considered inappropriate to use a Roman numeral in naming the ion of a metal that formsonly one cation (exhibits only one oxidation state. It is incorrect to omit the Roman numeral in the name of the ion of ametal that has more than one possible cation. Therefore, to correctly apply the rules of this system, it is necessary to knowwhich metals fall into each category. The following relatively common metallic elements should not have a Roman Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 2numeral included as part of their names in as much as they have only one possible charge on their cations:The Group 1 alkali metals, which all form 1+ cationsThe Group 2 alkaline earth metals, which all form 2+ cationsThe Group 3 metals, which all form 3+ cationsAluminum, gallium, which form 3+ cationsZinc and cadmium, which form 2+ cationsIt is common practice to include Ag in this group of metals not requiring a Roman numeral.Even though silver does exhibit several oxidation states, Ag 11+ is so common an oxidationstate that most general chemistry textbooks include silver in the list of cations that exhibitonly one oxidation stateFor all compounds containing metal cations other than those listed above, the oxidation state of the metal cationmust be specified using the Roman numeral (Stock system)The NH4+cation, the ammonium ion, is a common inorganic polyatomic cation. It is derived from the compound NH3,ammonia, by the addition of a hydrogen ion to the NH3 molecule. Because the chemistry of the NH4+ion somewhatresembles that of metal ions having a 1+ charge, it is given a name with the “ium” ending common to the Group 1 metals.B. Nomenclature of Simple AnionsThe nomenclature of all anions depends on alterations of the ending of the name of the main element to indicate the exactnature of the anion. The simple anions are, for the most part, single atoms of the nonmetals which have gained one ormore electrons. The ending which indicates the single atom nature of an anion is -ide. The elements which form this typeof anion, the symbol and charge for the anion formed, and its name are given in the following table.Table 1 – The Monoatomic AnionsElement Symbolfor AnionName of AnionfluorinechlorinebromineiodineoxygensulfurseleniumtelluriumnitrogenphosphorushydrogenF-ClBrI-O2-S2-Se2-Te2-N3-P3-HfluoridechloridebromideiodideoxidesulfideselenidetelluridenitridephosphidehydrideOther anions containing either two atoms of the same element or two atoms from two different elements with namesending in ide:CNcyanide (a carbon and nitrogen atom covalently bonded, one electron added to the pair of atoms.)OH- hydroxide (a hydrogen and an oxygen atom covalently bonded, one electron added to the pair of atoms.)O22- peroxide (two oxygen atoms covalently bonded, two electrons added to the bonded pair.)C22-carbide (two carbon atoms covalently bonded, two electrons added to the bonded pair.)The names and charges for these ions must be memorized. However, the charges on the single atom (monoatomic)anions can be deduced from their position in the periodic table.The name of a binary compound formed from one or more cations and one or more monoatomic anions or cyanide, Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 3hydroxide, peroxide or carbide anions is simply the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion, separated byone space.Table 2 – Some Compounds Formed from Metals with Only One Ion ChargeName Formulasodium chloridebarium chloridestrontium hydroxidealuminum cyanide NaCl BaCl2 Sr(OH)2 Al(CN)3Since the above compounds contain metallic ions of only one possible charge, a Roman numeral indicating the charge isnot included as part of the name.However, if the cation is formed from a metal which can form cations with different charges, and for which the ion chargemust be included as part of its name, the charge on the cation in the particular compound being named must be determinedfrom the formula and the charge on the anion. Examples are discussed below.Table 3 – Some Compounds Formed from Metals with More Than One Possible Ion ChargeName Formulairon(II) iodideairon(III) iodidebchromium(III) oxidec FeI2 FeI3 Cr2O3a. The formula, FeI2, must represent a neutral compound, with no net charge. The iodide ion has a 1- charge. Twoiodide ions represent a total of 2- charges. For the compound to have a net charge of zero, the iron ion must havea charge of 2+. This is the iron(II) cation.b. Three iodide ions represent a total negative charge of 3-. For the formula, FeI3, to represent a compound (netcharge is zero) the iron cation must have a charge of 3+. This is the iron(III) ion.c. The oxide ions represent a total negative charge of 6-. Therefore, two chromium ions must have a total charge of6+. This means each chromium ion has a charge of 3+ in the compound, and is the chromium(III) ion.Exercise 1: Write the preferred IUPAC name for the compounds below.a. CaO f. Na2O2 k. Al2O3 p. AgIb. KCl g. CrBr3 l. CrO3 q. NiSc. Hg2O h. Au(CN)3 m. CuO r. Hg3N2d. ZnF2 i. Sr3P2 n. PbS2 s. Li3Ne. Ba(OH)2 j. CoS o. Cu(CN)2 t. Ca2CC. Binary Compounds of Two Non-metalsFor naming compounds containing two elements, both of which are nonmetals, the IUPAC system recommends the use ofa series of prefixes to specify exactly how many atoms of each element there are in a molecule of the compound. Theseprefixes and their numerical meanings are:1 – mono 5 – penta 8 – octa2 – di 6 – hexa 9 – nona3 – tri 7 – hepta 10 – deca4 – tetraInorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 4Table 4 – Nomenclature of Binary Compounds Using Numerical Prefixes Name Formula Name Formulacarbon monoxidesulfur trioxidetetraphosphorus hexaoxideCOSO3P4O6carbon dioxidedinitrogen pentaoxidedibromine heptachlorideCO2N2O5Br2Cl7Note: When there is only one atom of the first element in the compound, the prefix “mono” is not used.The IUPAC rules state that in the preferred system of nomenclature:a. Binary compounds of two nonmetals should be named using the system of numerical prefixes.b. Numerical prefixes should not appear in the name of binary compounds of metals with nonmetals.c. The Stock system of using Roman numerals to indicate ion charges is not appropriate for naming binarycompounds of two nonmetals.Exercise 2: Name the following binary compoundsusing the system of numerical prefixes. a. SiO2 b. Cl2O c. S2Cl2 d. SF6 e. CCl4 f. NF3 g. CS2 h. ClF3 i. N2O3 j. XeF6D. Writing Formulas from Names of Compounds ending in -ideAll binary compounds end in -ide, but not all -ide compounds are binary1. The charges on both the cation and anion must be known.Cation charge: If the name includes a Roman numeral, this numeral gives the number of positive chargeson the cation. If the name does not include a Roman numeral, the charge on the cation must be inferredfrom the position of the element in the periodic table or have been memorized.Anion charge: The charge on the anion is never stated in the name of a compound, and therefore must beeither inferred from the position of the element in the periodic table, or be memorized.2. The formula for a compound must be such that the net charge is zero. This means that the total number ofpositive (cation) charges must be exactly balanced by the total number of negative (anion) charges. More thanone cation and/or more than one anion may be necessary to balance these charges. If so, the number of ionsneeded is indicated by a subscript written after the symbol for the ion.Exercise 3: Name the following compounds using thepreferred IUPAC nomenclature.a. XeF4 f. Cs3N k. N2O4b. CuCl g. CrCl3 l. Ag2Oc. Mg(CN)2 h. CaO2 m. MnO2d. Au(OH)3 i. CuS n. SnCl2e. PCl3 j. SO2 o. Hg2OInorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 5Table 5 – Examples of Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds ending in -ideName Cation Anion Formulasodium chloride Na+ Cl- NaCl(one 1+ ion and one 1- ion result in a neutral compound.)iron(III) bromide Fe3+ Br- FeBr3(one 3+ ion and the three 1- ions result in a neutral compound.)silver sulfide Ag+ S2- Ag2S(two 1+ ions and 2- ion result in a neutral compound.)calcium oxide Ca2+ O2- CaO( one 2+ ion and one 2- ion result in a neutral compound.)aluminum oxide Al3+ O2- Al2O3(two 3+ ions and three 2- ions give a neutral compound.)gold(III) cyanide Au3+ CN- Au(CN)3(one 3+ ion and three 1- ions give a neutral compound. The cyanide ion is enclosed inparentheses to indicate that three CNions, each consisting of one C and one N, are needed.)ammonium sulfide NH4+ S2-(NH4)2S(two 1+ ions are needed to balance the one 2- charge. Note that the ammonium ion is enclosedin parentheses to indicate that two polyatomic ions are required.)Exercise 4. Write the formulas for the following compounds ending in -idea. magnesium iodideb. chlorine dioxidec. chromium(III) sulfided. silver bromidee. mercury(II) hydridef. ammonium sulfideg. barium hydroxideh. strontium phosphidei. carbon tetraiodidej. iodine heptafluoridek. gold (III) hydroxidel. aluminum nitridem. iron(II) phosphiden. oxygen difluorideo. potassium peroxidep. gold(I) cyanideq. zinc oxider. selenium disulfides. uranium(III) oxideE. Nomenclature of Polyatomic AnionsPolyatomic anions are made up of several atoms. These anions are usually identified by their “trivial” or common names.For example, the SO42- polyatomic anion oxygen is commonly called the sulfate ion. Since the trivial names are the onesin almost universal use within the United States, the rules for forming these names are discussed here.In the correct formula for a polyatomic anion, the central atom will appear first. Sulfur is the central atom in the sulfateion and it is covalently bonded to four oxygen ligands. This group of five atoms shares two electrons over and above thenumber of electrons normally belonging to one sulfur atom and four oxygen atoms. Thus, the ion has a charge of 2-.Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 6The names of the majority of complex anions with oxygen as the only ligand are derived by altering the name of thecentral atom. The following rules set out the derivation of the anion name:Rule 1: The most common oxygen-containing anion has the name of the central atom altered to “ate.”Rule 2: Anions with one fewer oxygen atom than the most common anion have the name of the central atomaltered to “ite.”Rule 3: Anions with two fewer oxygen atoms than the most common anion have the prefix “hypo” added to thename of the central atom and the ending altered to “ite.”Rule 4: Anions with one more oxygen atom than the most common anion have the pre-fix “per” added to the nameof the central atom and the ending altered to “ate.”When writing formulas for compounds containing polyatomic anions, as usual the positive cation charges and the negativeanion charges must be balanced so that the net charge on the compound is zero. When more than one polyatomic anion isrequired in the formula, the entire anion is placed in parentheses. The number of anions in the formula is indicated by asubscript outside and to the right of the parentheses.If there is only one polyatomic anion required in the formula, the anion is not placed in parentheses.Table 6 – Examples of Formulas with Complex AnionsCompound Cation Anion Formulasilver nitratecalcium chloratealuminum sulfatetin(IV) nitrate Ag+ Ca2+ Al3+ Sn4+ NO3- ClO3- SO42- NO3- AgNO3 Ca(ClO3)2 Al2(SO4)3 Sn(NO3)4These formulas are read aloud as:AgNO3 – “ay gee en oh three” Ca(ClO3)2 – “cee ay – cee ell oh three taken twice”Al2(SO4)3 – “ay ell two – ess oh four three times” Sn(NO3)4 – “ess en – en oh three taken four times.”The formulas and charges of the complex anions ending in “ate” should be memorized. Rules 2-4 above can then beapplied to the memorized formulas to derive the other complex anions formed from the same central atom. For example:ClO3- = “chlorate ion”ClO2- has one less oxygen atom than the chorate ion; therefore it is the “chlorite ion.”(Rule 2)ClO- has two fewer oxygen atoms than the chlorate ion; therefore it is the “hypochlorite ion.” (Rule 3)ClO4- has one more oxygen atom than the chlorate ion; therefore it is the “perchlorate ion.” (Rule 4)Note that the charge on all of the polyatomic anions formed from chlorine have the same ion charge of -1.This, generally, will be the case for all complex anions formed from the same central atom.Because sulfur has the same outer electron configuration as oxygen, it can take the place of an oxygen ligand in a complexanion. The replacement of an oxygen atom by a sulfur atom is indicated by prefixing the name of the complex anion by”thio.”Examples: sulfate SO42-thiosulfate S2O32-sulfite SO32-thiosulfite S2O22-cyanate OCNthiocyanate SCNTable 8 contains a list of polyatomic ions ending in “ate” and “ite” that are commonly encountered in course andlaboratory work, as well as many other polyatomic ions. These should be memorized.Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 7Table 7 – Common Polyatomic Anions (Bold polyatomic ions are regularly used in CHM 111 and 112)Name Formula Name Formula Name Formula Name Formulaammonium NH4+ hydronium H3O+ Mercury(I) Hg22+hypochlorite ClO1-chlorite ClO21-chlorate ClO31- perchlorate ClO41-hypobromite BrO1- bromite BrO21- bromate BrO31- perbromate BrO41-hypoiodite IO1-iodite IO21-iodate IO31- periodate IO41-nitrite NO21- nitrate NO31-carbonate CO32-Bicarbonate(hydrogencarbonate)HCO31-sulfite SO32-sulfate SO42-Bisulfate(hydrogensulfate)HSO41- acetateC2H3O21-orCH3COO1-phosphite PO33- phosphate PO43- hydrogenphosphate HPO42- dihydrogenphosphate H2PO41-manganate MnO42-permanganate MnO41-chromate CrO42- dichromate Cr2O72-arsenite AsO33- arsenate AsO43-hydroxide OH1- peroxide O22-cyanide CN1-cyanate OCN1-thiocyanate SCN1-thiosulfite S2O22-thiosulfate S2O32- oxalate C2O42-selenite SeO32-selenate SeO42-tellurite TeO32-tellurate TeO42-Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 8Exercise 5: Name the following compounds containing polyatomic anions.a. NaClO3b. Ca(ClO4)2c. Fe(ClO2)3d. Al(ClO)3e. KNO3f. (NH4)2SO4g. (NH4)2SO3h. (NH4)2S2O3i. CsC2H3O2j. CuCrO4k. BaCO3l. KMnO4m. ZnCr2O7n. Pb(BrO3)2o. Hg2(BrO2)2p. Na3PO4q. KNO2r. Ag2SeO4s. Na2C2O4t. Au(OCN)3u. AuSCNv. Ni3(AsO4)2Exercise 6: Write formulas for the following compounds containing polyatomic anions.a. sodium iodateb. zinc cyanatec. ammonium carbonated. iron(III) bromatee. calcium arsenatef. potassium sulfateg. nickel(IV) acetateh. rubidium hypobromitei. ammonium nitratej. sodium thiosulfatek. aluminum oxalatel. copper(II) phosphitem. cobalt(II) thiocyanaten. mercury(I) chloriteo. aluminum perchloratep. sodium oxalateq. calcium manganater. potassium dichromates. magnesium bromitet. silver chlorateu. barium selenitev. potassium acetateF. Nomenclature of AcidsCompounds containing hydrogen which can be ionized to produce hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water are namedas acids when they are dissolved in water.1. Binary AcidsHCl, a binary compound which exists by itself as a gas, will dissolve in water and form H+ions and Clions. The puregas will have the name hydrogen chloride; an aqueous (water) solution of HCl is called hydrochloric acid.Rule for binary acids: If a hydrogen containing binary compound is dissolved in water and if the compoundproduces H+ions in solution the name for the solution will be formed by adding the prefix “hydro”, changing theending of the non-hydrogen element to “ic” and adding “acid” to the name.Examples: HF(g) hydrogen fluorideHF(aq) hydrofluoric acidNote: the (g) and (aq) are added to indicate pure gas and aqueous solution, respectively.Note: All acids must include (aq) in their formulas.Formulas for this type of compound are easily recognized as hydrogen will be written as the first element. For example,NH3 (ammonia) does not form an acid solution with water and does not have its component hydrogen written first in itsformula.Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet Oct18 92. Acids Containing Polyatomic Anions (Ternary Acids)Rule 1: A compound containing hydrogen as the only cation and a polyatomic anionwith its name ending in “ate” will have the “ate” ending changed to “ic”and “acid” added to its name.Rule 2: A compound containing hydrogen as the only cation and a polyatomic anionwith its name ending in “ite” will have the “ite” ending changed to “ous”and “acid” added to its name.Examples: H2SO4 sulfuric acid, or hydrogen sulfate HNO3 nitric acid, or hydrogen nitrate H2SO3 sulfurous acid, or hydrogen sulfite HClO hypochlorous acid, or hydrogen hypochlorite HClO4 perchloric acid, or hydrogen perchlorate HC2H3O2 acetic acid, or hydrogen acetateNote: The following is an exception – it is a ternary acid but it is named according to the binary acid rule.HCN(aq) hydrocyanic acidIf (aq) is included to indicate a water solution of the compound, the acid form of the name must be used. However, sincethese compounds are not commonly, and in some cases never, available in the absence of water, the acid name is usuallygiven even when there is no indication of the compound being in solution.Exercise 7. Give the name or write the formula for thefollowing.a. HI (aq) h. sulfuric acidb. HNO2 (aq) i. oxalic acidc. H2Se (aq) j. phosphoric acidd. H2CrO4 (aq) k. hydrobromic acide. HBrO4 (aq) l. bromic acidf. HSCN (aq) m. phosphorous acidg. HBrO2 (aq) n. nitric acid Science Chemistry