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I uploaded the instruction for this assignment with two samples. The first sample is that you did last time and the second sample is from the professor.

*******Read The Instruction carefully and follow the exact******

Reflection Two

******Topic: Freedom and American Identity*****

Rationale: No idea is more fundamental to American sense of self than freedom.  To the United States, freedom and liberty are interchangeable and seemingly universal. However, that is misleading.  Freedom is not fixed or a lone definition; rather, it is an ideal as well as a reality. It also defines American identity as a collective and as individual groups within the country.

******Question: Evaluate the American women’s rights movement in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. What was the extent to which the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed women the right to vote, marked a turning point in United States women’s history? How have subsequent efforts in the last fifty years advanced the movement? Explain your argument.**********

You are required to use at least TWO different documents to provide your argument for this question. You may use outside documents for your argument. Your response will be uploaded through SafeAssign in eCampus to check for plagiarism. Any portion of your response that does not follow the directions and guidelines regarding writing, grammar, mechanics, plagiarism, or fails to answer the question will result in a zero for this portion of your exam.

Your response should be a minimum of 650 words, Times New Roman, 12 point font, 1 inch margins, and no other heading than your first and last name. Remember, all papers are uploaded in DOC format. No other format will be accepted.

You are required to cite all quotes and sources in MLA format. This does not count toward your minimum total length. These citations need to be included in the text and in a works cited sheet (which is a separate sheet at the end of your response). If you do not know how to craft a works cited page, please visit the Brookhaven library. Noodle Tools is available for you to use via the library website.

Please understand that you are required to answer the questions asked. This includes college level writing and editing. There should be no first person anywhere in your response, as you were not there to witness these events.

If you have questions, ASK before the night it is due. I am available to assist you, and the history tutors are available to assist you. Do not wait until it is too late to attempt completion.

 

Document Options:

Proceedings of the Trial of Susan B. Anthony (1873)


https://www.infoplease.com/us/speeches-primary-documents/proceedings-trial-susan-b-anthony-6

Mueller v. Oregon (1908)


https://www.oyez.org/cases/1900-1940/208us412

 

Nineteenth Amendment (1920)


https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxix

 

Margaret Sanger, Women and the New Race (1920)


https://d1lexza0zk46za.cloudfront.net/history/american-documents/documents/msanger-woman-and-new-race-1920.pdf

 

A Word to the Wives (1955)


https://wwnorton.com/common/mplay/6.11/?p=/college/history/foner4/mp4/&f=ch24_video_4&ft=mp4&a=0

 

Equal Pay Act of 1963


https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/epa.cfm

 

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)


https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/381/479

 

National Organization of Women Statement of Purpose (1966)


http://now.org/about/history/statement-of-purpose/

 

Shirley Chisholm, Equal Rights for Women (1969)


https://www.infoplease.com/history/equal-rights-women/equal-rights-women

 

Roe v. Wade (1973)


https://d1lexza0zk46za.cloudfront.net/history/am-docs/roe-v-wade.pdf

 

Hillary Clinton, Women’s Rights are Human Rights (1995)


https://www.infoplease.com/us/speeches-primary-documents/womens-rights-are-human-rights

 

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, We Should All Be Feminists (2012)


https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_ngozi_adichie_we_should_all_be_feminists

 

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg on Equality, 2016


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-3GPOFatqE
 

Women’s March (2017)


https://www.womensmarch.com/global/

 

Angela Davis, The Women’s March on Washington (2017)


https://www.cbsnews.com/videos/watch-legendary-activist-angela-davis-rally-womens-march-on-washington/

 

A Conversation with Betty Freidan


http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=3675

 

Title IX


http://www.titleix.info/

 

Your reflection must meet the minimum criteria in order to be considered for a grade. If you choose to not meet any of the above criteria, you will not earn credit for the assignment. PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINK ABOVE (“REFLECTION TWO”) TO SUBMIT YOUR WORK.

Verma 1

Abhishek Verma

History 1302-22701

February 15, 2022

The native Americans and the white Americans had a tainted relationship from their early years. Initially, the native Americans had lived in peace, tilling their lands, and keeping their animals peacefully until new settlers who had whiter skin color emerged from the sea. These new settlers came with the critical mission of conquering this new land for their mother countries while at the same time establishing their homes there. However, the major problem arose with how these white settlers would live together with the land’s original owners- the native Americans. First, the problem emerged because the white settlers soon wanted to take all the fertile lands, displacing their hosts. Second, the Europeans came with certain aspects of cultural attributes that were foreign, such as religious practices. Third, the Europeans appeared to have brought a broad array of afflictions in the form of diseases that plagued the native Americans. Amid all these troubles, the dynamics of American society underwent immense changes. For example, the country attained self-rule from the British crown, and it became apparent that the native Americans had to be integrated into the entire American population. This integration on religion, work, and even governance effectively achieved this fete, which felt that the native Americans had to be fully assimilated into the new cultural dimensions. One of these cultural assimilation strategies was formulated by Captain Richard H. Pratt, who designed the slogan “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man.”

The slogan “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man” was colloquially coined to assimilate native Americans into accepting the “modern” education system. The term killing does not mean physical action but ensures that native Indians lose their hard stance towards their cultural attributes (Pratt). This aspect was after it emerged that it would be difficult to make them conform to the new official requirements owing to their substantial conformity with their traditions. The first step to assimilating native Americans was to go through the stipulated education system that the government provided. It was perceived as a matter of great national interest to mingle the Indians with white Americans to ensure that the country grew steadfast through an inclusion system of governance.

Education was the first mode of killing the Indians among the native Americans. After Pratts’s declaration, the government embarked on a mission to enroll many native American young people into boarding schools (Little, 12). An example of these boarding schools was the Carlisle industrial schools established in 1879 and ran up to the onset of the 20th century. It would be easier for them to see sense in some government acts and grow up to appreciate and support certain aspects of the government’s decision through education. For example, native American students were forbidden from using their native names and speaking their language to ensure that they conformed to the stipulations of “killing the Indian” in them. Second, they were not allowed to practice their religion, maintain their clothing, and do away with their haircut.

The call for assimilation of the Native Americans was a demonization of their tradition and cultures. This aspect is because eliminating any element of their culture was seen as a way of degrading and dismissing the existence or importance of their cultural practices or attributes (Bentley, 9). The mere suggestion of doing away with cultural importance or attributes shows that American society has come a long way as far as the fight for equal rights has come. Moreover, the term used by Pratt also indicates that there is a likelihood that it is not only the African Americans who endured stints of troubles from the hands of the white Americans but also the native Americans. For example, in 1887 there was passed the general allotment act. This act mandated the president to break all the native reservation land from the communal set-up of ownership to individual ownership. The principal aim of this act was to force the native Americans into stopping to put more effort and emphasis on cultural aspects such as land and instead focus on other social-economic elements like the other white Americans. The forced system of assimilation placed the native Americans in certain difficult situations that disadvantaged them economically and socially.

Work cited

Bentley, Matthew Steven. “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”: Manhood at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1879-1918. Diss. University of East Anglia, 2012. https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/40572/1/2012BentleyMSPhD.pdf

Little, Becky. “How boarding schools tried to ‘kill the Indian ‘through assimilation.” History. com (2017). https://airc.ucsc.edu/resources/schools-little.pdf

Pratt, Richard H. “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man.” Official Report of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction. 1892, pp. 46-59.

1

Allen

Lynx Allen Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Please be sure to use the proper font and heading as per MLA guidelines.
Also, use the header space to insert page numbers and last name (MLA guidelines)

Dr. Allen

HIST 1302

14 February 2022

Reflection One Comment by Allen, Jennifer: The title is centered.

PROMPT
: What does it mean to “kill the Indian” and “save the man”? How does that statement reflect US policy towards American Indian populations from 1860-1890, and what parallels can you draw between the treatment of Native Americans at the time and race relations today? Comment by Allen, Jennifer: The prompt is restated, according to the directions.

Word Count: 798 Comment by Allen, Jennifer: The word count ONLY includes the actual words of the reflection – the heading, title, and works cited are NOT included!

The American government’s relationship with Native American tribes has been complicated from the beginning of the republic. Once the United States won its independence from Great Britain, the Treaty of Paris (1787) made no mention of relationship parameters with Native Americans and the new nation. Regardless of the past, the new nation could treaty with the tribes or take land by force. Moreover, tribal law was murky insofar as the leader’s ability to sign official agreements with foreign governments. Ultimately, “treaty-making ended as a whole in 1871, when Congress ceased to recognize the tribes as entities capable of making treaties” (National Geographic). Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Please note this paper is left-justified. The paper is NOT centered. Only the title and the “works cited” words are centered. This is important, so follow the rules. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: In text citations for anything quoted. And notice the quotes are integrated with the paragraph. Quotes should NEVER be standalone sentences.

Confusing and oft ignored policymaking between the United States and Native Americans culminated in the late nineteenth century as Anglo citizens pushed westward in search of land and new lifestyles. The post-Civil War era provided the United States with the opportunity to assimilate Native Americans into Anglo culture, and the easiest way to accomplish this task was through Indian boarding schools. As Captain Richard H. Pratt discussed in his speech, the goal was to “kill the Indian in him and save the man” (Pratt). Instead of physically killing anyone of Native American descent, Pratt posited efforts should be undertaken to remove the person’s Indianness and make them more culturally Anglo. As a former Civil War soldier in the Union Army, Pratt founded the Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1879, where he ran it until he retired in 1904 (Johnson 120). The concept of the Carlisle Indian School was to “transfer the savage-born infant to the surroundings of civilization,” with the result being that the students will be filled “with the spirit of loyalty to the stars and stripes” (Pratt), because the student will have been indoctrinated into Anglo American culture. The man remained, but any Native American culture has been erased. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Required use of the primary source. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Paraphrased but still cited because I had to look this up. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: This answers the first question asked in the prompt.

Pratt’s statements in his speech reflected US policy towards American Indian populations for the latter half of the nineteenth century as “allotment and assimilation” (National Geographic) became the major focus of the government. No other piece of legislation spotlights the American attitude towards Native American populations than the General Allotment Act, better known as the Dawes Severalty Act (1887), allowing the United States Government to dismantle tribal lands. This helped American attempts to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream life (National Archives). The Carlisle schools were to “teach Indian students, some as young as four or five, industrial trades so they could be ‘useful members of American society’ and take that training back to their communities” (Yellowhorse Kesler). At their pinnacle, the Indian Boarding School system numbered 367, with more than seventy-three still in operation today (National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition). Comment by Allen, Jennifer: This is the second question asked so I placed it here to make sure I answered it and stayed on task. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Supporting and reliable information from reliable sources Comment by Allen, Jennifer: US policy – I used the Dawes Act because it is obvious and a legal support Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Comment made about Indian schools, and I must cite it because I did not know the exact numbers – or that there were some STILL in existence!

Although the Dawes Act was supposed to protect Native property rights, the opposite transpired. Many of the Native Americans who signed up for property and enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) were provided land incapable of sustaining crops and cheated out of their rights from a corrupt government entity. The land size allotted for each person was too small to sustain a family and Native Americans had no resources to invest in tools needed for farming startups, nor did they know how to farm by white standards. In addition, the BIA was completely inept at allocating land or maintaining equity amongst individuals. The Dawes Act, Indian Boarding Schools, and other government policies succeeded in annihilating Indian tribal culture, stealing over 60% of Native American land, and almost destroying the reservation system. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: The previous information provides support for the second question asked in the prompt. STAY ON TASK

Parallels between the treatment of Native Americans by the US government and the treatment of Black Americans can be drawn. The Fair Housing Act (1968) was necessary to pass so that non-Anglo people could purchase houses wherever they chose to do so; until that point, Black American housing options were restricted because of race. Relocating Native Americans to reservations and forcing them to live in specific areas of the country is the equivalent of Black American real estate options prior to 1968. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Third question in the prompt – modern day parallels. I chose Black Americans. You do not need to discuss every race, ethnicity, religion, etc.…choose one and stick to it. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: Because I know these facts (and let’s hope I do because I teach them – LOL) I do not need to quote anything here. If you do not know something and must look it up, you CITE the source.

Education has also segregated communities. Although not specifically relegated to boarding schools like Native American children, Black students were legally segregated by race until Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954). Although the Brown decision was a watershed in its attempts to equalize the educational opportunities open to all American schoolchildren, forced busing because of Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education (1971) had to transpire but did not address desegregation across district lines (Milliken v. Bradley) unless public school districts had expressly implemented segregationist policies. De facto segregation, like white flight to the suburbs, continued to reinforce segregated schools. Because of centuries of systemic racism and forced segregation towards both Native American and Black American populations, the results for both groups are eerily similar in that opportunities offered to Anglo-Americans were not available to others. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: I am a legal historian, so my support came from legal cases that I have studied. These are all common US Supreme Court cases any student would learn if they studied the American legal system. Comment by Allen, Jennifer: I have kept my opinions out of the discussion as best as possible because this is history. The prompt did not ask for your opinions.

Works Cited Comment by Allen, Jennifer: The Works Cited page is always a new page, regardless of how many citations you have.

Please do NOT center the entire page – only the title.

Citations are placed in alphabetical order by author. Government agencies are listed by the agency, as no one usually authors the item.

Johnson, N.R. The Chickasaw Rancher. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2001.

National Archives. “The Dawes Act (1887),” www.ourdocuments.gov, 6 December 1886. Accessed 14 February 2022.

National Geographic. “The United States Government’s Relationship with Native Americans,” www.nationalgeographic.org, 11 December 2019. Accessed 14 February 2022.

National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition. “American Indian Boarding Schools by State,” in Healing Voices, Volume 1: A Primer on American Indian and Alaska Native Boarding Schools in the US. 2nd Ed. Minneapolis: The National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition, 2020.

Pratt, Richard H. “Kill the Indian, and Save the Man.” Official Report of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction. 1892, pp. 46-59.

Yellowhorse Kesler, Sam. “Indian Boarding Schools’ Traumatic Legacy, and the Fight to Get Native Ancestors Back,” NPR.org, 28 August 2021. Accessed 14 February 2022.