2,500 words of content, that does not include the Title Page, Table of Contents, Abstract, or References. Absolutely no tables or figures or columns must be included as they will not count toward the 10 full pages [2500 words] minimum – only written content will earn credit.
BE SURE TO FOLLOW EXAMPLE AND RUBRIC COMPLETELY!!
Criteria Ratings Points
1 & 2
70 to >62.0 pts
All content requirements as
stated in the instructions
are included in the paper.
62 to >49.0 pts
Most content requirements
as stated in the instructions
are included in the paper.
49 to >0.0 pts
requirements as stated in
the instructions are
included in the paper.
30 to >26.0 pts
Spelling and grammar are
correct. Sentences are
complete, clear, and
contain appropriately varied
Required Level headings
are perfect. 10 references
are cited in current APA
26 to >21.0 pts
Some spelling and grammar
errors are present.
Sentences are presented
well. Paragraphs contain
some varied sentence
structures. Required level
headings are not perfect.
Where applicable, 8
references are cited with
21 to >0.0 pts
Spelling and grammar
incomplete or unclear.
Paragraphs are poorly
formed. Required level
headings are not
present. References are
minimally or not cited in
current APA format.
Total Points: 100
Hofstede Analysis Comparison between the USA and “…” Grading
Rubric | BUSI604_B05_202220
Hofstede Analysis Comparison between the USA and “…” Assignment Instructions
The purpose of this research project is for you to write a professional, graduate-level research paper in current APA format. Competency in current APA format is required of all Business graduates of Liberty University, as set forth by policy of both the graduate faculty and the administration.
You will conduct a Hofstede Analysis of the nation you selected for the Business Cultural Dimensions Analysis Assignment and compare that with a Hofstede Analysis of the USA.
After reading your paper, the reader should be able to comprehensively answer the following research questions. Thus, the research questions form the major aspects (APA Level 1 headings) of your outline.
1. From the perspective of a Hofstede Analysis, what are the differences and similarities between <the selected nation> and the USA?
2. What are the implications for USA businesses that wish to conduct business in <the selected nation>?
Important Points to Consider
· Length of assignment: 10 pages minimum
· 10 pages is approximately 2,500 words of content, that does not include the Title Page, Table of Contents, Abstract, or References. Absolutely no tables or figures or columns must be included as they will not count toward the 10 full pages [2500 words] minimum – only written content will earn credit.
· Format of assignment: APA Format
· Number of citations: 10 citations
· Acceptable sources include references from reputable professional and/or scholarly journals and/or informational venues that deal with the content of the course (i.e., not blogs, Wikipedia, newspapers, etc.).
· Use the following as the exact title of your paper:
· “Hofstede Analysis Comparison between the USA and <insert nation name>”
· The paper must consist of only 2 sections, as indicated above. Do not add sections or revise the research questions.
· Three levels of current APA headings must be used throughout the paper, as this is a graduate-level research paper.
· The paper must be submitted as a Microsoft Word Document.
· Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.
Some students do not fully understand the difference between plagiarism and paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is when you take a source or someone else’s idea and say it in your own words. When you paraphrase, you must still give the author’s name, date, the title of the source, the scholarly journal from where it came, and the exact website address or book from where it came. However, when you directly quote a source, it must have quotation marks around the quote, or (if 40 words or more) it must be set in block-quotation format. Give detailed information of where you acquired the quote.
For the purpose of this paper, adhere to the following rules when quoting or using a source:
· Do not directly quote more than 120 words from any 1 source.
· If the source is 2,000 words or less, do not directly quote more than 50 words from it.
· Do not use the same source more than a total of 3 times within the whole document for quoting or paraphrasing.
· Quotes must contain the section (if provided) and paragraph or page numbers of the quote and this information must be placed in the reference.
· In all instances, use current APA guidelines for citations and references.
Page 2 of 2
Hofstede Analysis Comparison between the USA and “…” Example
Title: Hofstede Analysis Comparison between the USA and <Insert Nation Selected>
Seriously relevant graduate school research requires a question for which no ready answer is available. The research is conducted, to answer specific questions regarding a topic, problem, or issue for which the answers are not yet known. Let us focus on the concept of a topic. What do you want to know about a topic? Asking a topic as a question (or series of related questions) has several advantages:
Questions require answers. A topic is hard to cover completely because it typically encompasses too many related issues; but a question has an answer, even if it is ambiguous or controversial.
Questions give you a way of evaluating the evidence. A clearly stated question helps you decide which information will be useful. A broad topic may tempt you to stash away information that may be helpful, but you are not sure how. A question also makes it easier to know when you have enough information to stop your research and draft an answer.
A clear open-ended question calls for real research and thinking. Asking a question with no direct answer makes research and writing more meaningful to both you and your audience. Assuming that your research may solve significant problems or expand the knowledge base of a discipline involves you in more meaningful activity of community and scholarship.
In this course, the required research questions are open-ended and require a variety of accumulated data to develop answers. Your topic is a Business Cultural Dimensions Analysis of the nation you selected. You have been provided two specific research questions to guide you in the study of this topic which, if done well, will demonstrate you have attained an advanced measure of expertise in the topic. The research questions provide the framework of your analysis.
1. From the perspective of a Hofstede Analysis, what are the differences and similarities between <insert nation> and the USA?
2. What are the implications for USA businesses that wish to conduct business in <insert nation>?
The example begins on the following page. Be sure to use the exact wordings in this outline for your APA level-headings.
EXAMPLE OUTLINE Comment by Satterlee, Brian C (School of Business): Focus your research on the nation you selected at the beginning of the course.
As you begin to research your paper, think of it as writing two highly inter-related papers.
Remember, what you are really doing here is breaking the research assignment into smaller, more manageable components.
1. Research Question 1: From the perspective of a Hofstede Analysis, what are the differences and similarities between <insert nation> and the USA? Comment by Satterlee, Brian C (School of Business): The first “paper” is a report of the similarities and differences comparison regarding Hofstede Analyses of the nation you selected for Project 1 and the USA
· Hofstede Analysis of <insert nation>
· Hofstede Analysis of the USA
2. Research Question 2: What are the implications for USA businesses that wish to conduct business in <insert nation>?
· Conclusions regarding the similarities and differences
· How could USA managers use the above information to create and sustain competitive advantages when doing business with <insert nation>
· How might a Christian manager/leader prepare to address the differences and similarities while working in that nation?
Page 2 of 2
Business Cultural Dimensions
Dimension of Culture: Communication
The South Koreans integrate various elements and dimensions that significantly impact their local businesses. The business language used in South Korea is Korean. Although different countries have adopted different dialects, they understand the standard Korean language, which they can alternatively use to run businesses. English is the second most renowned language, but many people do not communicate when conducting business unless a foreigner is involved. Since a vast majority of the Koreans live and execute companies within the Confucian outline, the early meetings are usually used in an opening setting, and business may be introduced later (Cho and Kim 2017). Many Korean businesspeople expect to bow when they organize a meeting with someone since this is the traditional way to greet one another. Communicating with Korean natives can be complicated and prolonged because they highly dislike the saying “no” and will thus be regarded as poor etiquette (Horak, and Yang, 2018). When involved in business deals with the Koreans, the Confucius respect factor comes into play and is used to lead the business dealings. Observing one’s body language is key to having successful business deals with the Koreans. It is an ideal way of showing respect towards an older or senior individual. Korean natives recognize Kibun, which is the notion of saving “face,” and they thus strive to maintain harmony amongst their personal and business relationships.
Dimension of Culture: Religion
South Korea flaunts diversity that comes from the integration of different religious groups. The South Korean community upholds the Confucian values represented when conducting business with the locals. This plays an integral role in maintaining the common respect of the culture and history of Confucianism. The natives are highly loyal to other locals, and they develop prominent levels of trust when conducting business among them. This is attributed to the fact that many of them come from the same religious backgrounds as they have a strong tendency to follow individuals who believe in the customary practices of Confucianism. The influence of Confucianism among businesspeople in South Korea dates to 1997 after the development of the Asian monetary crisis, and the South Koreans were lining up on the streets to give up their gold to the country because they believed that their country was going under. Since then, the sense of togetherness in building the economy has always been critical. As a result, they prefer to collaborate with an individual who has the same belief as themselves.
Dimension of Culture: Ethics
From the Confucian values adopting loyalty in all business, doings are incredibly important. South Koreans define the act of displaying negative connotations about the other party or employer as whistleblowing. It intends to break business relationships and avoid such negative-minded people (Horak, and Yang, 2018). The corruption actions remain the central obstruction for business success even in the local outlets. However, the provincial government has been making numerous efforts to eliminate the notion of unethical business practices. Still, corruption remains a challenge to eliminate when robust regulations and corporate governance measures supporting politics and economics tend to trigger corruption. However, various businesses are coming forward to eliminate corruption, like Samsung, who are already in the frontline undertaking corporate initiatives that will encounter unethical business practices across the South Korean marketplace.
South Korean entrepreneurs believe that personal relationships must be established before the business can be decided and discussed. They also believe that cooperation should address essential issues first to ensure that both teams accomplish the same goals. From this perspective, South Koreans believe that establishing a foundation for both teams to communicate and develop relationships by explaining what each team expects brings satisfaction. Everyone feels that they have received a good deal they initially wanted and did not benefit from (Han, 2022). Business relationships are built based on trust where teams believe in integrity in that they should not cheat when their partner is not looking. Businesspeople must also ensure that their employees are satisfied and thoroughly understand the whole business concept and its goal. This is incredibly important because South Koreans believe that when employees are happy with what they are doing; they tend to share more ideas that will play an integral role in fulfilling organizational goals. South Koreans take strategic considerations seriously, including improved interactive communication strategy, because their business is online. This is incredibly important because foreigners will benefit much from this community. Doing business online provides a platform where both teams can practice open communication, which increases the ability to establish long-term relationships.
Dimension of Culture: Values and Attitudes
The attitudes and values of South Korean entrepreneurs tend to vary like in any other business environment, but various attributes make them stand out. The South Koreans practice ambitious standards of work ethics, mainly if an employee has been employed by a government agency or a home-grown company. The loyalty factor arises from the Confucianism opinion that many people in South Korea followed. Another aspect representing domestic employees displaying robust work ethics and attitudes may be the unpredictable labor market conditions. In South Korea, organizational commitment is defined as how an individual engages in and identifies with a specific employing facility and is automatically motivated to take actions on its behalf. South Koreans have broad determinations to establish a solid commitment to accomplish the set objectives. In return, they aspire to be provided with robust job security as defined by Confucian teachings. Such prominent levels of loyalty and devotion function as the backbone and are represented throughout the local culture of South Korea. A recent survey executed to compare loyalty amongst the existing employees with employees from other nations such as Japan and the US reveals that South Koreans were 54.2% more committed to their job, unlike Japan or US employees who represented 20.4% and 26.3% commitment level. These statistics further reveal that many South Korean employees were likely to decline another job that offered them higher pay and, in its place, choose to stay with the current company they are working for.
Dimension of Culture: Business Manners and Customs
South Koreans have high respect for age and social status, with hierarchy playing the significant role of influencing every aspect of social interactions. They believe in doing everything to maintain face or Kibun, which they also establish and maintain business and social relations. Through their business dealings, South Korean’s primary objective when involving themselves in any business deals is to implement a cooperative business environment which is accomplished through proper etiquette. Any form of disrespect within any social or business environment is received criticism, which guarantees that the individual will most likely lose current and future deals. The most common etiquette and manners within the South Korean community have played an integral role in shaping and developing the worldwide respect of the entire South Korean culture. This has further allowed local businesses to maintain traditional ways of doing business.
Natives tend to establish strong relationships over food. As a result, it is common for people to hold meetings in bars or restaurants, which is an environment the community members use to determine the trustworthiness of their business partners (Ho Kim et al., 2018). Most of the time, it is the custom of the Koreans to hold meetings over meals before they can be involved in any decision-making or ultimately involve the other party. Practicing such behaviors provides both teams with an ideal opportunity that they can use to discuss business in a casual and relaxed atmosphere so that they can be able to continue to foster in trust-building process. Following the long history of the South Koreans, many people tend to be strong and straightforward in their business dealings while upholding the traditional domestic customs. Therefore, the respective business partner needs to respect South Korean culture, which tends to be deeply embedded in their culture. They should ensure to recognize it throughout their business and social relationships.
South Korea has several business customs. Suppose these business customs are not followed correctly. In that case, it is tough to cooperate with other people who can disrespect them, thereby losing potential business partners or even clients. There is a lot to keep in mind, but respect is among the top things to consider. Most South Koreans put a lot of effort into what they feel about a situation; therefore, doing their best not to upset them would result in significant deals.
The labor Act of South Korea was established in 1953, with the excellent working hours set at 48 per week, although that standard has been reduced to 40 hours per week. According to the statement released by the International Labor Organization, almost half of the Koreans work more than 48 hours in a week which is the second-highest globally (Horak,2018). Koreans value their families yet work for a considerable number of hours to ensure that their families feed their families well. Work ethic and wanting to submit quality products could be why they work for many hours. On the other side, various issues result from working many hours, such as stress, especially in males because of fatigue and poor working conditions, and psychological health, adversely affecting any individual. The working condition also depends on the level of education.
The dress code in South Korea is critical. Men are expected to dress dark suits, with a nice white shirt and a tie, while women are expected to dress a smart suit for business or even dresses with trousers worn in informal social environments (Park, 2020). Usually, during summer months, wearing light fabrics with suits is recommended, while heavier fabric suits, gloves, and scarfs are for winter months. In an initial business meeting, dressing in conservative colors is advised as they built credibility and relationship. After that, dressing brighter clothes can follow but still be conservative to uphold a professional appearance always.
The companies in South Korea stick firmly to the hierarchical affiliation regarding significant decisions in the business at the top and then delegate down the chain for execution, with only leaders being involved in making all the decisions. South Korea believes in the hierarchy to such levels because of the respect given to the older leaders (Kim and Hamilton-Hart 2021). The junior staffs are not allowed to participate or contribute any idea because these seem disrespectful to their leaders, which is looked down upon. In each culture, respect is mandatory, and they believe that being wise depends on how old a person is and have been through a lot and deserves respect from those younger than them (Sungwon, 2017). The junior staff is expected to do their job and follow the already set rules and regulations.
The first Korean conditions survey was completed in 2006 by the Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA). These conditions showed that South Koreans are working a higher number of hours compared to other nations (Manykian, 2019). However, their work intensity is slightly lower than other countries, with a meager rate of workforce violence and shallow satisfaction from work. Any average staff takes approximately four accident-related days off work, with the team taking more than six days annually. This results from low-quality equipment more autonomous responsibilities, with many injuries coming from stress, fatigue, muscular pains, and headaches.
The rules of protocol while in any meeting must be understood and followed. If an individual has the art of bowing understood, they can bow with any individual who has lesser status while the senior individual is expected to initiate the handshake. Moreover, just like the appointments, it is essential to be punctual for meetings because failing to do so would ruin the relationship of the business and raise many issues for the company moving forward.
Social Structures and Organization
Family serves as the root of social structure among the South Koreans. The family persists in dominating most South Korean social and business life. A substantial percentage of the modern companies remain as family-owned corporates that family members also manage. The hierarchical structure employed in South Korean companies will continue to prevail in numerous generations overseeing the management and control of business dealings. The community also respects the ancestors, elders, and work ethics. Many South Koreans have solid work ethics, including working 2,200 working hours yearly, the highest amount recorded in OECD member countries. Therefore, foreigners need to establish a thorough business understanding with the locals because business decisions in South Korea are not grounded on contracts or business terms but on strengthening ties with the locals. To accomplish success within the South Korean markets, businesspeople must understand the psychological drivers of South Korea’s amazing economic revolution from ranking as one of the poorest countries across the world in the 1960s to a sustainable and wealthy dynamic country. These drivers involve understanding the business and social culture in and out, the country’s religion, the history of survival and invasion, and the still intact traditions.
Additionally, the community members have a profound recognition that for any organization to maintain a successful climb in the globalization process, everyone must uphold accountability and adopt a proactive stand on fulfilling ethical standards and regulations that have been set up in the marketplace. To this end, most loyal South Korean local governments and multinationals have maintained active participation in various global corporations to improve the free market and gain success in the ongoing globalization process. This ensures that the local businesses will understand that they cannot accomplish success in the absence of these organizations. Therefore, things like a competitive advantage in the marketplace will pass them.
When it comes to business, Koreans are extremely competitive. They do not like coming second, and to some extent, they view comprises as defeat. As a result, they often need assurance to motivate and boost their confidence. A sense of urgency accompanies the business culture in South Korea as business negotiations are mostly tenacious and fast-faced. Wastage of time is not often because they tend to look for quick sales and run out of patience for elaborate plans (Hemmert, et al., 2019). Decisions and replies are provided within a day of a proposal being made. Besides that, it is extremely easy for Koreans to volte-face on debates and breaks the relationship if a better deal comes in the way. Therefore, it is better to look for short-term agreements while building a solid and trustful business relationship.
Parents in South Korea go the extra mile to ensure that their children have the necessary skills and knowledge to advance in the exam college, which is usually extremely competitive. They provide all the possible resources to enhance the socioeconomic status of the children as well as the family name. Many massive impacts result from education on the process of globalization that the nation strives to continue to complete. Due to the hierarchy of local entrepreneurs being run by the family generations and honest local relationships, the demand for successful education is exceptionally high. The nation understands that education within the local communities will assist the continuation of building family-owned businesses and companies. The technology industry, which is among the most growing sectors worldwide, is vital for the country to continue advancing as one of the leaders in the world. This is achievable because of good educational progress.
Cho, M., & Kim, G. (2017). A cross-cultural comparative analysis of crowdfunding projects in the United States and South Korea. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 312-320.
Hemmert, M., Cross, A. R., Cheng, Y., Kim, J. J., Kohlbacher, F., Kotosaka, M., … & Zheng, L. J. (2019). The distinctiveness and diversity of entrepreneurial ecosystems in China, Japan, and South Korea: an exploratory analysis. Asian Business & Management, 18(3), 211-247.
Ho Kim, W., Park, J. G., & Kwon, B. (2017). Work engagement in South Korea: Validation of the Korean version 9-item Utrecht work engagement scale. Psychological Reports, 120(3), 561-578.
Horak, S. (2018). Join in or opt out? A normative–ethical analysis of affective ties and networks in South Korea. Journal of Business Ethics, 149(1), 207-220.
Horak, S., & Yang, I. (2018). A complementary perspective on business ethics in South Korea: Civil religion, common misconceptions, and overlooked social structures. Business Ethics: A European Review, 27(1), 1-14.
Kim, H., & Hamilton-Hart, N. (2021). Negotiating and Contesting Confucian Workplace Culture in South Korea. Asian Studies Review, 1-20.
Manykian, I. (2019). The value of education for young generation in South Korea.
Park, C. (2020). Factors influencing the sustained growth of high-tech SMEs in South Korea: Perspectives of owner-managers, policymakers, and employees.
Sungwon, Y. (2017). Globalization and language policy in South Korea. In Language policy, culture, and identity in Asian contexts (pp. 37-54). Routledge.
GRADING FEEDBACK- you presented around nine pages in the content, but the paper has structure errors, making it challenging to follow and understand because you did not adhere to the Assignment Instructions and Outline. For instance, the main body stated: 10 full pages are approximately 2,500 words of content, that does not include the Title Page, Table of Contents, Abstract, or References. Next, you did not adhere to the Assignment Outline Example states: Be sure to use the exact words in this outline for your APA level-headings. EXAMPLE OUTLINE Research Question 1: What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? Dimension of Culture: Communication Dimension of Culture: Religion Dimension of Culture: Ethics Dimension of Culture: Values and Attitudes Dimension of Culture: Business Manners and Customs Dimension of Culture: Social Structures Research Question 2 : How are these elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in the nation? Dimension of Culture: Communication Dimension of Culture: Religion Dimension of Culture: Ethics Dimension of Culture: Values and Attitudes Dimension of Culture: Business Manners and Customs Dimension of Culture: Social Structures Introduction: None was given Research Question 1: What are the major elements and dimensions of Culture in this region? Your Religion and Values and Attitudes and Business Manners and Customs and Social Structures and Organization sections needed citations to validate them. Research Question 2: How are these elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in the nation? You did not present the six assigned elements but wrote on some that were not part of the assigned outline elements. Conclusion: None was given Lastly, some grammar errors were found in this paper.