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Module 4 Research

Module 4:  Research:

Post a link to a video or article that teaches you something new about Unit 4. You can research Marie de France, “Lanval,” Read “Lanval” and “Laustic,” by Marie de France; selections from the Decameron, “The Story of Ying Ying,” Courtly Love, Dante, or the Inferno or Popul Vuh. Explain why you chose your link. Interact with at least two class members responding to their posts. Be specific when responding to others’ links.

Task 3. Courtly Love Activities

TASK 3. Read through all the Courtly Love Activities below. Then, select one of these questions to answer for Activity 8, and post it to the Unit 4, Forum, Task 3:  Activity 8: Courtly Love Forum. These Activity entries must be thoughtful; each one should be the equivalent of at least a full typed page or more in length (e.g. not less than 250 words).  They may be longer if you need to say more on your topic. You will not be able to do these Activity entries properly unless you have carefully read the assigned literature.

 

WORLD LITERATURE I

Task 3, Unit 4:  Activities for Love, Courtly and Otherwise

Please read through all of these Activities before making your selection. Make a copy of the Activity question to begin your response. Post your response there, Task 3, Unit 4, Activity 8: Courtly Love Forum. These Activity entries must be thoughtful; each one should be the equivalent of at least a full typed page or more in length (e.g. not less than 250 words).  They may be longer if you need to say more on your topic. You will not be able to do these Activity entries properly unless you have carefully read the assigned literature.

1) “Lanval” is one of the more “courtly” stories. Lanval starts out as a noble, but impoverished knight, and his love for a superior, magical lady greatly improves him. Go through some of the “rules” at the The Art of Courtly Love and show how they apply to Lanval.

2) Read the Courtly Love Study Guide and the selections from The Art of Courtly Love.  Medieval Sourcebook Andreas Capellanus The Art of Courtly Love Rules.pdf  

Focus on the “rules” at the end. Do you think people actually lived by these rules or do you think they were part of an elaborate court game? Can you find any similar rules nowadays? Write your own list of modern rules of love. How are your rules similar to those in The Art of Courtly Love? How are they different? What does that tell you about how people have or have not changed in the past 800 years?

3) Read Andrew the Chaplain’s list of the rules of courtly love in The Art of Courtly Love.  Medieval Sourcebook Andreas Capellanus The Art of Courtly Love Rules-1.pdf
  Download Medieval Sourcebook Andreas Capellanus The Art of Courtly Love Rules-1.pdf  

Then, write your own “modern” rules for the game of love.  After you have done so, compare them to Andrews’s list and comment on how they are the same, and how different, and why.  Be thoughtful here–we are living in a very different world.  Be sure to support your comments with specific examples.

4) Consider the roles of the woman in Marie de France’s “Laustic” and Boccaccio’s “Tenth Story of the Tenth Day,” otherwise known as “Patient Griselda.” Can you reconcile these subjugated women with the “myth” of courtly love? How? Give specific examples from both stories and from the “rules” in The Art of Courtly Love.

5) Select two or three medieval lyrics that deal with the pains and desires of love for an unattainable lover. Cite the lyrics by author and title. Then, discuss themes they have in common and support your ideas using specific examples from the lyrics.  Do you think there are any significant differences between these lyric views of unattainable love and modern attitudes? Be specific in your response and develop your ideas.

6) Look closely at the mixture of religious and earthly love imagery in Petrarch’s poems (You can search the Internet if you want to find Petrarch’s poems online). Compare this to the descriptions of love you have read in one or more other texts during this course, such as the love of Odysseus for Penelope, or the love of Enkidu for the prostitute, or the love of Dido for Aeneas, or the love of Medea for Jason.  Can you find any similarities?  What, exactly, are the big differences?  Support your answer with specific examples from both texts.

7) The Queen in “Lanval” falsely accuses Lanval of having made improper advances to her, because she is angry that he refused her improper advances. He is put on trial and is only saved by the arrival of his lady. This story has an ancient analog in the story of Joseph in the Hebrew Bible. When Joseph is in Egypt, Potiphar’s wife tries to seduce Joseph and he rejects her. She then falsely accuses him of making improper advances to her and he is actually thrown in prison. Compare these two stories and see if you can find any interesting similarities and/or differences. Be sure to support your ideas with specific examples from both stories.

8) Go to the database of Medieval Movies.  HYPERLINK  https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/medfilms.asp (Links to an external site.)

See if you can locate a film that deals with the matter of Courtly Love. Watch the film and write a critical review, indicating what you think was genuinely “medieval” about it and what you think was simply film fakery.

9) First read the introduction to The Story of Ying Ying, which suggests that both lovers are unpleasant, deceitful people. After reading The Story of Ying Ying, decide whether or not you agree. Why or why not? Support your ideas with plenty of specific examples from the text.

10) Compare attitudes towards sex outside of marriage in the story of Brother Alberto in the Decameron and The Story of Ying Ying. Do you see any interesting similarities? Any interesting differences? And so what? Support your ideas with plenty of specific examples from both stories.

11) Select two or three medieval lyrics that deal with the pains and desires of love for an unattainable lover. Cite the lyrics by author and title. Then, discuss themes they have in common and support your ideas using specific examples from the lyrics.  Do you think there are any significant differences between these lyric views of unattainable love and modern attitudes? Be specific in your response and develop your ideas.

12) A common theme of courtly love is the ennobling of the lover by love. Select two or three lyrics that deal with the relationship between love and a noble or gentle heart. Cite these lyrics by author and title, and then discuss the way they present the ideal lover and the impact of love on him/her. Can you think of any modern parallels? Be specific in your response and develop your ideas.

13) Write a poem about a hopeless love for a superior and unresponsive beloved.  Use Petrarch’s basic ideas and images and adapt them to modern circumstances.  If you do this one, put some real work and thought into it; otherwise stick with a more objective question.

14) Some of the lyrics are clearly about sexual love, not marriage. Select two or three of these, cite the lyrics by author and title, and then discuss the way they present the pursuit and satisfactions of love, using specific examples from the lyrics. Do you think there are any significant differences between these lyric views of love and modern ones? Be specific in your response and develop your ideas.

14) Compare the representation of women in Marie de France’s stories, “Lanval” and “Laustic,” to that of women in any one or two tales from the Nights.  What are the interesting similarities?  What are the significant differences?  Support your answer with specific examples from all three texts.

Module 4 Task 6

TASK 6. Read through all the Dante’s Inferno Activities below. Then select one of these questions to answer for Activity 9, and upload it here.  These Activity entries must be thoughtful; each one should be the equivalent of at least a full typed page or more in length (e.g. not less than 250 words).  They may be longer if you need to say more on your topic. You will not be able to do these Activity entries properly unless you have carefully read the assigned literature.

WORLD LITERATURE I

Task Six:  Activities for Dante’s Inferno

Select an Activity that interests you; make a copy of the Activity question to begin your response. Upload your Activity here. These Activity entries must be thoughtful; each one should be the equivalent of at least a full typed page or more in length (e.g. not less than 250 words).  They may be longer if you need to say more on your topic. You will not be able to do these Activity entries properly unless you have carefully read the assigned literature.

1) In Canto 5 of the Inferno, Paolo and Francesca personify the ethical dilemmas of courtly love, and they are punished in hell for their love. Who or what, exactly, was to blame for their going to hell? Explain this in detail, using the text to support your comments.

2) All the women in the Inferno seem to be there for misconduct connected to sexuality. Identify some of the women in the Inferno and specify exactly what their sins were and how their punishments are suited to their crimes. Now, can you identify any men who are in hell for sexual crimes? Are these cases similar to the women’s, or different? Explain and support your responses with examples from the text.

3) The Inferno presents a thoroughly medieval Christian vision of hell, although it draws heavily on the classical past, especially Virgil’s Aeneid. Identify some elements in the Inferno that you think are specifically Christian, and some that you suspect are leftovers from pagan antiquity. Explain how both work together in the text to create Dante’s special medieval vision of hell.

4) A subtitle for the Inferno could be “the punishment fits the crime.” Give some examples of this from the text and discuss whether or not you agree with Dante that these are appropriate punishments for the crimes committed. Explain why you think this concept of the punishment fitting the crime was important to Dante. Support your comments with specific examples from the text.

5) Canto 26 tells about Ulysses (the Latin name for Odysseus), who is in one of the lower circles of hell, because he was an evil counselor. How do you think the Greek hero Odysseus degenerated into the Christian villain Ulysses? Support your ideas with examples from the materials you have read during this course as well as a close reading of Canto 26.

6) Compare Tennyson’s poem Ulysses with Dante’s representation of him in Canto 26. Why does Dante disapprove of Ulysses? Why does Tennyson approve of him? Can you think of any interesting ideas about the changed times which could account for at least some of this change?  
Ulysses by Alfred, Lord Tennyson | Poetry Foundation.pdf


 
 Download Ulysses by Alfred, Lord Tennyson | Poetry Foundation.pdf
  

7) Popul Vuh, part 3, has its own underworld, Xibalba, ruled by the terrible Lords of Death. Compare/contrast this vision of the underworld with Dante’s Inferno; especially note interesting similarities/differences between Satan and the Lords of Death.

8) Read Popul Vuh. Then review the creation story in Genesis in the Hebrew Bible and think about any interesting/relevant parallels and significant differences between the two.

9) In part 3 of Popul Vuh, two heroes enter Xibalba and conquer the Lords of Death, killing them. Is there anything at all in Dante’s Inferno that remind you of this conquest? If so, explain, supporting your ideas with specific examples from both texts.

10) In Canto 28, Dante represents Mahomet as a demonic monster. This is not unlike the representation of the Muslim Saracens in the Song of Roland. Compare the representations of Muslim beliefs in the two poems and see if you have any ideas why there was such intense hatred of Muslims in the Catholic Middle Ages as you can see in these poems. Do you think it was a response to the Crusades? To the developing competition that Europe was beginning to offer the Muslim world? To what? You might want to look in a good history book or encyclopedia to get some more concrete information on this disturbing issue. Support your ideas with specific examples from Dante’s Inferno and Roland.  Be sure to document your sources.

11) If you were Dante (or more appropriately, Minos, who assigns sinners their punishment in Hell) where would you place some of today’s infamous newsmakers in the Divine Comedy’s structure of hell and why?

12) On the other hand, this essay: “The Uncanonical Dante: The Divine Comedy And Islamic Philosophy: by Paul A. Cantor, examines elements in Dante that derive from Islamic philosophers, especially “Averroës, or Abu al-Walid Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd, to give him his full Arabic name.” After reading the essay carefully, look for elements in Dante that are NOT anti-Islamic, but actually stem from Islamic culture or an awareness of its importance.  Be sure to document your sources.  
Paul Arthur Cantor – The Uncanonical Dante: The Divine Comedy and Islamic Philosophy – Philosophy and Literature 20:1.pdf


 
 Download Paul Arthur Cantor – The Uncanonical Dante: The Divine Comedy and Islamic Philosophy – Philosophy and Literature 20:1.pdf
  

13) Dante was the medieval master of political correctness in his Divine Comedy, even though he got into plenty of trouble for siding with the wrong (e.g. losing) side politically in the real world.  Look through a few of the cantos and see who you can find in hell because Dante did not like his principles and/or politics. Are there many? Do you agree with Dante that they belong in hell? Use specific examples from the Inferno to support your ideas.

14) Examine the role of Virgil in the Inferno. Why do you think Dante chose him as his guide? What kind of help could Virgil offer to Dante? What could Virgil not do for Dante? What does this have to do with Virgil being a pre-Christian poet? Support your ideas with examples from the text.

15) Do a survey of your favorite monsters in the Inferno. What traits do they share? Are they like other monsters you’ve read about, or do they have special qualities unique to the Inferno? Support your main points with specific examples of monsters from the Inferno and elsewhere.

16) Why is Satan locked in ice at the bottom of hell? Do you think this is an appropriate place for him? Explain in some detail just what this Satan is and what his role is in the Inferno.

17) First, list the sins of the nine circles in descending order. Then, make a list of what you consider to be modern sins in descending order, from least to most awful. Compare/contrast your list to Dante’s in some detail. How are the two lists similar; how are they different? And so what?

18) A fairly recent film, What Dreams May Come (starring Robin Williams), presents a view of the afterlife that uses some ideas and images from Dante’s Inferno. It also is a thoughtful, visually wonderful, representation of less punitive concepts of life after death. Watch the film, paying close attention to the explanations given about why suicides go to hell. Then, compare this to Dante’s vision of suicides and others in hell. What interesting similarities and/or differences do you find? So what? Be sure to use specific examples from both the film and the poem to support your ideas. 

19) Make up an interesting question of your own that relates to Dante’s Inferno and answer it in full detail. Check with me first to get approval for the topic.

Module 4: Reading Quiz 1

Module 4:  Reading Quiz 1:

Read 

“Lanval” (Links to an external site.)
 by Marie de France. Then, read the Biblical story of 
Joseph and Potifar’s wife (Links to an external site.)

Compare the stories. What similarities do you notice? What are the differences? What is the moral of each story? Which story do you find more powerful, and why?

– Good answers should be at least 250 words.

– Try to address at least 3 similarities and 3 differences. 

– Be as specific as you can. Refer to details in the text. Prove that you did the reading!

Plagiarism Reminder

Compose the entirety of your answer yourself. Do not copy answers from online sources. If you quote from the assigned texts, remember to use quotation marks (Ex: “Now Joseph had been taken down to Egypt.”)

Module 4: Reading Quiz 2

Module 4:  Reading Quiz 2.

Read the 
“Rules of Courtly Love” (Links to an external site.)
 by Andreas Capellanus. This text dates to 1184. 

Write your own list of modern rules of love. Include at least 10.

Reflect How are your rules similar to those in The Art of Courtly Love? How are they different? Write at least four sentences. 


Medieval Sourcebook Andreas Capellanus The Art of Courtly Love Rules-1.pdf


 
 Download Medieval Sourcebook Andreas Capellanus The Art of Courtly Love Rules-1.pdf
 

Module 4: Reading Quiz 3

Module 4:  Reading Quiz 3: 

Study the GEOGRAPHY OF HELL: NINE CIRCLES OF INFERNO.  In Dante Alighieri’s medieval epic Inferno, these nine circles are organized around sins that, if not repented of, result in a soul being damned to that circle of hell eternally. The least serious sins are in circle 1 and the most serious are in circle 9. If you were to list the nine worst sins from least to most serious, what would your list look like? How similar/different is it from Dante’s scheme?

Week 11 Discussion Question 1

What similarities and differences did you see in Lanval” and “Laustic,” by Marie de France; selections from the Decameron, and “The Story of Ying Ying.”?  What stood out the most as you read these selections?

Week 12 Discussion Question 1

The selections we have read focus a lot on the idea of the epic hero, good and bad rulers, the conduct of individuals, the idea of predestination, and destiny.   Do you feel the literature being published today still focused on those aspects (or a version of them) or is the literature published today gone off in a different direction? What direction is literature going?

Week 13 Discussion Question

If you were asked which of the selections from this semester you would like to see made into a film in 2021, which piece would you request?  Who would you want to play the lead roles?

Week 14 Discussion

Based on all the readings you did this semester which one stands out the most in your mind.  What makes that selection so memorable to you?  Which reading selection did you dislike and why was that?

TASK 1. Read the Courtly Love Study Guide

To-do date: 29 Mar at 23:59

TASK 1. Read the Courtly Love Study Guide located below, which will give you background information on Medieval ideas about love, courtly and otherwise.

WORLD LITERATURE I

Task 1, Unit 4:  Courtly Love Study Guide

By Dr. Diane Thompson, NVCC, ELI

DEVELOPMENT OF COURTLY LOVE

Courtly Love as a concept, if not as a practice, developed out of a mixture of Arab Love Poetry and Troubadour Poetry. The Cult of the Virgin Mary got mixed in a bit later.

11th century   

Arab Love Poetry; lady worship; joi (sexual)

12th century    Troubadour Poetry; fin’amors–adultery (Bernart de Ventadorn); Conjugal Courtly Love (Marie de France)

13th century    EVE & MARY: Marian Cult and Love Poetry; mixture of love and religion (Laura, Beatrice)

Although today the notion of whether or not there ever was a cult or practice of Courtly Love has come under much attack, one can find poetry that clearly used its concepts, especially in the 12th and 13th centuries.

There are three unique aspects of Courtly Love:

 the ennobling force of human love

the elevation of the beloved above the lover

 love as ever unsatisfied, ever increasing desire

(Following Denomy, The Heresy of Courtly Love (1947), 20-21)

This power of transformation, of ennobling the character of the lover, is the distinguishing characteristic of Courtly Love. Courtly love is something entirely new in Europe, and the major source of our modern ideas about romantic love.

Courtly love is not very popular currently, especially not in serious literature and film. Why? Maybe there’s a relation between the woman’s movement and the decline of courtly love? An interesting question to think about.

TROUBADOURS

Troubadours: They flourished between 1100 and 1350 and were attached to various courts in the south of France. The troubadours wrote almost entirely about sexual love and developed the concept and practice of courtly love

There was no tradition of passionate love literature in the European middle ages before the twelfth century, although there was such a tradition in Arabic-speaking Spain and Sicily. This Arab love poetry was readily accessible to Europeans living in Italy and Spain and was a major source of the Troubadour-developed cult of courtly love.

Troubadour love poetry, although conceptually adulterous, inspired the man (and perhaps the woman) and ennobled the lover’s character.

THE MAIN FEATURES OF TROUBADOUR POETRY:

an attitude of subservience and fidelity to a cold and cruel mistress

an exorbitant and quasi-religious praise of the lady’s beauty

the requirement that love be extramarital

“Though [this]…love was sensual, their ideal of “pure” love prohibited sexual intercourse between the lovers at least in theory.” Of course, in fact, people probably did what they always have done.

(following: Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 871)

EVE & MARY – WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE AGES

Feudal nobility arranged marriage to suit families’ advantages, often while the children were still infants.

A married woman was the ward of her husband, had limited legal rights and was subject to the will of her husband, who had the power to punish her physically.

Pregnancy and childbirth were frequent and risky.

The middle ages produced a great deal of misogynic literature expressing the traditional church position:

women were inferior: from Adam’s rib

women were sinful: story of the Fall

Not only were women inferior, but they had characters like that of the serpent, cursed by God like the Genesis serpent to a lowly life of servitude and pain

However,

There was Mary as well as Eve to provide images of medieval womanhood. Mary was not only praiseworthy for her holiness, but for her embodiment of ideal feminine traits. Mary’s primary virtues centered on her freedom from sexuality. She was conceived by divine intervention and she conceived Jesus immaculately. The “good” feminine was thus divorced from sexuality, although not from motherhood.

During the 13th century, Mary increased in importance as the divine feminine mediator between human beings and God. She interceded for human beings seeking salvation, as Beatrice did for Dante.

The exaltation of the beatified Virgin Mary climaxed in the Marian cult or cult of the Virgin Mary, which influenced the literature, music and art of the high and late Middle Ages.

Consequently, at the same time that people were praying to the Virgin Mary for salvation, they were condemning Eve for the Fall of Man. This Eve/Mary dualism allowed and even encouraged conflicting attitudes toward medieval women.

On the one hand, women held a high position in the system of Christian redemption, yet on the other hand, they were responsible for the wretched, sinful, corrupt state of fallen humanity.

This dualistic religious attitude towards women offers us some insight into the curious mixture of love and religion, sex and purity we find in the courtly love poetry and stories of the Middle Ages.

(The above section is based on the Introduction to Three Medieval Views of Women, translated and edited by Fiero, Pfeffer, & Allain)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF COURTLY LOVE

Neither the Greeks nor the Romans thought that passionate love between the sexes could improve or transform the lovers. Rather, they thought of passionate love as either a punishment inflicted on men by the Gods, akin to madness, or as mere sensual gratification, not to be taken very seriously.

While antiquity did not approve of passionate love between the sexes, Christianity absolutely deplored it.

Even passionate love between spouses was considered theologically sinful, if unavoidable, until the thirteenth century when the Church began to modify its attitudes on this issue.

So, when a medieval passionate lover obediently subjects himself to the will of his beloved lady, he grants her a status, which women did not enjoy either in Antiquity or in the Middle Ages.

COURTS OF LOVE

Eleanor of Aquitaine was queen of the Court at Poitiers, France, in the late 12th c. Here she and her daughter, Marie, Countess of Champagne, set up a court controlled by women, which aimed at “civilizing” the rather rough society of the area. Many gifted poets and scholars came to her court at Poitiers. A unique situation where wealthy powerful women were able to create their own environment.

The doctrine of Courtly Love was designed to teach courtiers how to be lovely, charming and delightful. Its basic premise was that being in love would teach you how to be loveable and pleasing; so love taught courtesy.

This kind of love is a social phenomenon, designed for communal living at a wealthy court where people had plentiful leisure and desired to entertain and be entertained delightfully.

This ideal of courtly love which developed in Poitiers helped to free women from the role of inferior, destructive Eve and take on some of the status and elevation of the beatified Mary. Here, a woman instead of being the property of man, which was the case in feudal Europe, is the mistress of a man who is her creature and property.

Marie and Eleanor had a court of perhaps 60 elegant noble ladies who would hold a Court of Love where they would dispute, jury and judge questions of love according to their code of courtly love.

Of course, all of these Court of Love judgments are based on a code and ideals that have little to do with the realities of woman’s position in the feudal society. This was a social court, not a legal one.

(The above section is based on Kelly, Eleanor of Aquitaine.)

ANDREW THE CHAPLAIN — THE CODE OF COURTLY LOVE

Marie had Andrew the Chaplain, a cleric at the Court of Poitiers; write a formal code of love, which would instruct people in the proper behavior of lovers as part of her attempts to civilize Poitiers.

Ovid’s Ars Amatoria or Art of Loving was the source for Andrew’s Art of Courtly Love. Ovid had written a cynical spoof on the fine art of seduction reduced to a set of rules. However, when Andrew, under Marie’s direction, adapted Ovid to the 12th c. Court of Poitiers, a major shift occurred:

Ovid presents the man as the master who seduces women for his pleasure

Art of Courtly Love presents woman as mistress and the man is her vassal who serves her.

THE ART (AND RULES) OF COURTLY LOVE

(The following quotes and information are from Andreas Cappelanus: The Art of Courtly Love. Ed.Locke)

Love    “Love is a certain inborn suffering derived from the sight of and excessive meditation upon the beauty of the opposite sex, which causes each one to wish above all things the embraces of the other.”

Effect of love ” O what a wonderful thing is love, which makes a man shine with so many virtues and teaches everyone, no matter who he is, so many good traits of character!”

Who may love            “everyone of sound mind who is capable of doing the work of Venus may be wounded by one of love’s arrows unless prevented by age, or blindness, or excess of passion.”

Love and class            if you love a peasant woman, praise her and force her–peasants don’t respond to gentle wooing

How Love May be Retained

keep it secret

be wise and restrained in conduct

be generous and charitable

be humble, not proud

offer service to all ladies

do what is pleasing to your loved one

associate with good men; avoid the wicked

jealousy increases love

How Love Decreases

too much exposure to the beloved

too much privacy for love

uncouth behavior

sudden loss of property

blasphemy and anti-religious behavior

How Love Ends

if one of the lovers breaks faith

if one of the lovers strays from the Catholic religion

The First Five Rules of Love According to Andrew

1          Marriage is no real excuse for not loving

2          He who is not jealous cannot love

3          No one can be bound by a double love

4          It is well known that love is always increasing or decreasing

5          That which a lover takes against his will of his beloved has no relish

(There are a total of 31 “rules.”)

Andrew’s Rejection of Love (Book III of The Art of Courtly Love)

This doctrine of courtly adulterous love evidently did not sit well with Andrew in the end, so he wrote a third book refuting the first two. This may show the conflict he felt between the pagan naturalism of courtly love and his clerical training in Christian self-control. Or, as some suspect, the entire Art of Courtly Love may be a spoof on the ungodly, unchristian love religion. At any rate, Andrew sums up his attitude toward Courtly Love in Book III thus:

    “The mutual love which you seek in women you cannot find, for no woman ever loved a man or could bind herself to a lover in the mutual bonds of love.”

This concept of women as deceitful and faithless is rather typical of medieval monkish misogyny.

ANDREW’S RULES OF LOVE APPLIED TO A POEM BY BERNART DE VENTADORN

Bernart de Ventadorn at court of Eleanor of Aquitaine, was an outstanding courtly love troubadour. Here is the second stanza of “When I See the Lark That Moves.”

        Alas! how much I knew of love,

        I thought, but so little know of it!

        For now I cannot check my love

        For her, who’ll give me little profit.

        She has my heart and all of me,

        Herself and all the world; and nothing

        Leaves to me, when thus she takes me,

        Except desire and heartfelt longing.

        (In Medieval Age. Ed. and Intro. by Angel Flores. Laurel Masterpieces of World Literature. N.Y.: Dell, 1963. Trans. by Muriel Kittel, p. 178.)

How the Rules of Courtly Love Apply to “When I See the Lark That Moves”

lover cannot control his loving           “I cannot check my love”

lady is in control of lover       “she has my heart and all of me”

lady is cold, cruel and ungenerous     “and nothing/ Leaves to me”

he suffers endless desire without consummation       “except desire and heartfelt longing”

ANDREW’S RULES OF LOVE APPLIED TO MARIE DE FRANCE’S ELIDUC Note: If you want to read Eliduc, link here:

 HYPERLINK “http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/eliduc_rickert.pdf” http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/eliduc_rickert.pdf

A happily married knight, Eliduc, is slandered to his king; Eliduc leaves for England until court politics simmer down; he volunteers to help a besieged king and is successful. The king’s daughter, Guilliadun, invites him to her quarters to talk;

“She kept stealing looks at him…his f