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Does playing sports at an early age for kids help reduce the incarceration and violence rate?

Introduction: 2-3 pages

Literature Review: 4-5 pages

Methods: 1.5 pages

Results: 1.5 pages

Discussion/conclusion: 4-6 pages

12 scholarly articles which includes 6 journals and 3 books 

SOC 499 Paper Check List – Does the Paper have these and how well are they done?
____ Each section is an essay _____ Cite with page numbers ______ Reference Page
____ Do you have page numbers in the upper right corner?

Introduction Section
____ First paragraph starts with a hook
____ Introduction sets out the scope of the problem (lays out costs)
____ Ends with hypothesis (states independent & dependent variables & direction of relationship to be tested)
____ You may choose to define 2-3 important terms in this section

Literature Review
____ First paragraph begins with hook
____ First paragraph end with restating hypothesis
____ Has summary of article or book paragraph
____ Has summary of author paragraph
____ Has summary of topic paragraph
____ Discusses how experts define repeatedly used terms

Methods
____ First paragraph begins with hook
____ First paragraph ends with restating hypothesis
____ Define qualitative and quantitative data and explain why your data is either, or both if you are using
both qualitative and quantitative data.
____ Explain, using logic and/or expert opinion, why data you have collected will test hypothesis.
____ Uses detailed ‘recipe’ step by step to explain how data was collected.
____ If doing a survey, who was your population? NSU College Students?
____ What is your n, sample size?
____ Where was survey conducted? When was it conducted?
____ How was it conducted? Did you ask questions or they filled answer on paper?
____ Define closed ended and open ended questions, and tell us what type you used.

Data (aka Results)
____ First paragraph starts with a hook
____ First paragraph ends with restating the hypothesis
____ State the results, such as size & results of the survey, and do it with detail, not rushed.
____ Provide statistics from survey, especially using descriptive statistics.

Discussion(aka Analysis) and Conclusion
____ First paragraph starts with a hook
____ First paragraph ends with restating the hypothesis
____ Consider starting discussion with a summary
____ Repeats important results and statistics and explains what their meanings are. Does the data have
significance?
____ Data supports hypothesis. Data negates hypothesis. Data is inconclusive in testing hypothesis.
____ Are results consistent with the literature in the literature review?
Conclusion
____ Limitations of the study (may be placed in discussion instead)
____ Recommendations for future research (may be placed in discussion instead)
____ Wrap it up with final insights and comments

Soc. 499 Modeling and Methods

MODELING

Read journal articles to see if you can find:

1. The Introduction

2. The Statement of the Problem

3. The Literature Review

4. Methods

5. Results

6. Discussion

7. Conclusion

Not all journals articles are written in this structure, but can you find these in them?

Soc. 499 Modeling and Methods

Assertions and Steps

Every assertion and STEP, should be supported with logic, expert opinion, and/or data.

If you use convenience sampling, then support it with definition (from expert) and logic.

If you use secondary data, then support with logic and definition (from expert) at the very least.

Soc. 499 Modeling and Methods

METHODS

You are explaining why the data you collecting will test your hypothesis, AND how you are collecting the data, step by step.

Support each step with logic and expert opinion, usually definition.

Do NOT use words you are guessing at what they mean.

Soc. 499 Modeling and Methods

METHODS

Remember to start your methods section with an introduction paragraph, beginning with a hook and ending with the hypothesis restated exactly the same way.

Soc. 499 Modeling and Methods

Soc. 499 Modeling and Methods

Soc. 499 Modeling and Methods

Soc. 499 Modeling, Methods, and Analysis

COMMON PROBLEMS IN METHODS

1.If you choose an ‘n’ sample size of 30, explain why you chose this number. Was it to minimize the margin of error?

Was it due to time restrictions of researchers’ schedules? Restrictions of time, money, etc. are legitimate, but need to be mentioned. When doing a survey, sample size in relation to population size has to be addressed.

Soc. 499 Modeling, Methods, and Analysis

COMMON PROBLEMS IN METHODS

2.Surveys with closed ended questions are not qualitative research.

Have a reason to state why qualitative or quantitative is important to your research if you are going to mention either, and use them correctly.

Soc. 499 Modeling, Methods, and Analysis

COMMON PROBLEMS IN METHODS

3.Research question is never addressed, or is addressed as in it being a question on a survey.

Your topic might be youth crime. Are children in single parent households more likely to engage in youth crime? This is a question, and if the answer is yes, what contributes to this correlation? This is now a contingency question. Your methods need to address how and why you are gathering data to answer this question.

Soc. 499 Modeling, Methods, and Analysis

COMMON PROBLEMS IN METHODS

4.Definitions are used, but they are not strategic and make it difficult to operationalize.

Be strategic in using a definition in being sure it covers what you want and makes it easy to work with. For example, defining youth as 10 to 15 years of age may be convenient, but will it make difficult to talk about teen pregnancies that happen from 16-18?

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

“Copasetic.”

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

INTRODUCTION: Draw the reader into your topic. Put forward your topic with boundaries on what, who, and where. Provide some context and a tidbit of the scope. Layout your question and problem.

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Put forward your question in greater detail. Post more statistics and data (not all, but more) on the breadth of the problem and who it affects. What are the costs, number of lives lost, economic costs, quality of life issues, damages to an industry, damages to a community?

Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

Thesis Statement: derived from your research question, it should put forward a testable hypothesis of your independent variable impacting your dependent variable. your question in greater detail.

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW: Use our blue print, start the first paragraph with a hook, and end the first paragraph by restating the hypothesis. Set the context, tell us about the social environment the phenomenon is taking place in and build the picture around it. Who has already studied this problem? What did they identify as causes? Results?

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW:

The priority is to tell the reader about what experts on your topic have written.

The literature review is not a forum for you to ‘prove’ your thesis is correct. Scientists do NOT prove something, but test to see if the data supports or negates a hypothesis.

Sociology 499: Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW:

1.Who has studied this?

2.Did researchers differ in opinion?

3.What factors did researchers identify as causes?

Sociology 499: Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW:

Name the names of researchers.

Write: “Newberry (2021) found ….”

Do NOT write:

“Researchers found …”

“The Journal of Sociology found …”

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW format:

1. Paragraph(s) by article. You write a paragraph summarizing an article or book with it’s major points.

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW format:

2. Paragraph(s) by author. You write a paragraph summarizing the main ideas encapsulating the work of an expert on the topic.

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW format:

3. Paragraph(s) by topic. You write a paragraph on a major idea on the topic, and cite commonalities among authors.

Sociology 499: Moving from Introduction, Statement of the Problem, to Literature Review

LITERATURE REVIEW format:

4. Mixing Formats. You write some paragraphs by article, some by author, and some by topic. This is very common, and gives the writer the freedom to use each style for achieving efficient organization for effect.