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Project Report


KB7052 – Master’s Research Project


Principles of sustainable development in the United Kingdom

Rakesh Yadav. Jeela

W19047419

MSC CONSTRUCTON PROJECT MANAGEMENT WITH BIM WITH ADVANCE PRACTICE

Supervisor Name: Nima Gerami Seresht

i

KB7052 Research Project Research Declaration Form

I declare the following:

1. That the material contained in my dissertation/journal paper is the result of my work and that due acknowledgement has been given in the bibliography and references to all sources be they printed, digital, or personal, using the Cite Them Right bibliographic referencing system.

2. The word count of my dissertation is 9200words.

3. I agree to an entire digital copy or sections of my dissertation/journal paper being placed on the Blackboard module if deemed appropriate, to allow future students and academic staff the opportunity to see examples of past students’ dissertations/journal papers.

4. I agree to my dissertation/journal paper being submitted to a plagiarism detection service where it will be stored in a database and compared against work submitted from this or any other module in Northumbria University and from other UK, EU, and international institutions using the service. In the event of the service detecting a high degree of similarity between the content of my dissertation/journal paper and the documents contained within the database, this will be reported back to my supervisor, examiners, and internal moderators, who may decide to undertake further investigation that may ultimately lead to disciplinary action (according to ARTA), should an instance of academic misconduct be detected.

5. I have read the Northumbria University policy statements on ethics and governance and confirm that ethical issues have been considered, evaluated, and appropriately addressed during my research and during the production of my dissertation/journal paper.

6. I agree to the module tutor nominating my dissertation/journal paper on my behalf for appropriate academic with the CIOB, RICS, IMechE, and APM, etc.

Signed (Student Number): Rakesh Yadav. Jeela (W19047419)

Date: 15-12-2021


Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Environment

Contents
1 Introduction 1
2 Literature Study 7
3 Methodology 21
4 Results 25
5 Discussion 31
6 Conclusion 35
7 Recommendations 37
8 Reflective Account 38
8.1 Project Management Approach 38
8.2 Professional Development 38
8.3 Communication Approach 38
Impact of COVID 40
References 41
Appendix A. Project Management Records 44
Project Management Record 44
Final Gantt Chart 48
Ethics Approval 49
Appendix B. Additional information 55
Appendix C. Additional Information 56
Appendix D.Additional Information 57
Appendix E. Risk Assignment Form 60

Table of Figures

Figure 1 Circles of Sustainability 2

Figure 2 Sustainable development and construction





6



Figure 3 History of Sustainable Development 8

Figure 4 Importance of Sustainable Development 9

Figure 5 Environmental Challenges 10

Figure 6 Data Analysis Process





18



Figure 7 The Percentage of Reported Sustainable Development Goal Indicators at headline level reached 81% in 2020, an increase, an increase over 40% since 2017





20



Figure 8 Sustainable Aspects and Number of Items 21

Figure 9 Concern about Current Climate Change 22

Figure 10Private Housing repair and maintenance in the three-month on three-month series in January 2020 saw the largest fall since October 2012





25


Introduction

The key aim of this project is to analyse the sustainable development in the UK while focusing on the definition of sustainability development and the key principles of sustainability development in the UK. The significance of conducting this research cannot be understated. Sustainability is such a crucial aspect in the modern world. Boundaries are necessary for sustainable development; these are not absolute limits, but rather restraints on environmental resources imposed by current technological and social organization, as well as the biosphere’s ability to absorb the impacts of human activity (Ismael & Shealy, 2018). The need for long-term development is an unavoidable necessity. Anyone can benefit from this approach, from huge corporations to tiny businesses to individuals who use waste sorting to put it into practice. Regarding the environment, the resources of the Earth are depleting, and if we do not begin to care for it, future generations may be unable to provide for themselves.

Sustainable Development is regarded as being an organizing kind of principle that is for meeting the human development objectives while simultaneously sustaining the capability associated with the neutral systems to offer the natural kind of resources as well as ecosystem Services on which the given economy as well as society are dependent on. The desired outcome is regarded as being a state of the society whereby living conditions as well as resources are usually utilized to go on meeting the human needs without in any way undermining rye integrity as well as the stability regarding rye natural system. Sustainable kind of development can be illustrated as being the kind of development which is associated with meeting the key needs associated with the present without in any way compromising the capability regarding the future generation to effectively meet their own needs(Huerta de Soto et al., 2021).

Sustainability goals like the current UN level sustainable development goals are associated with addressing the universal issues inclusive of poverty as well as inequality, climate change, peace and environmental degradation among others. While the modern concept regarding sustainable development is one that is usually derived highly from the year 1987 Puntland Report, it is also considered to be rooted in the earlier ideas concerning sustainable Forest management as well as the 20th century environmental associated concerns. As the identified Concept regarding sustainable development advanced, it is considered to have shifted its identified focus highly towards the economic advancement as well as social advancement and even environmental safety for the future generations (Robertson, 2021). 

The Unman dates sustainable development in order to ensure that current developmental needs are met without comprising future generation ability to meet their own needs. Accepting this proposal will be beneficial as the research targets to shed a light on the current principles of sustainable construction. In addition, stakeholders in the construction industry, researchers, and students will benefit from this research as they will be able to learn about current principles of sustainable construction in the UK. The significance of conducting this research cannot be understated. Sustainability is such a crucial aspect in the modern world. Boundaries are necessary for sustainable development; these are not absolute limits, but rather restraints on environmental resources imposed by current technological and social organization, as well as the biosphere’s ability to absorb the impacts of human activity (Ismael & Shealy, 2018).





Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development (
Figure
1
Circles of Sustainability
)

The need for long-term development is an unavoidable necessity. Anyone can benefit from this approach, from huge corporations to tiny businesses to individuals who use waste sorting to put it into practice. Regarding the environment, the resources of the Earth are depleting, and if we do not begin to care for it, future generations may be unable to provide for themselves. The building sector is crucial in addressing the difficulties of sustainable development because it deals with massive volumes of raw materials and energy in its operations with buildings generating nearly 40% of global CO2 emissions (Lima et al., 2021). According to Lima et al., (2021) when it comes to the building sector, sustainable development means maintaining economic growth while reducing material consumption (both in terms of mass and energy). It also means designing structures that are environmentally conscious. This research will cover these aspects, known as the principles of sustainable development in the United Kingdom, which will greatly contribute to the existing scientific knowledge in sustainable construction.

Research Aim

The aim of this research is to investigate the principles of sustainable development in the United Kingdom.

Research objectives

This will be achieved by focusing on three major objectives which will include;

To identify what sustainable development is, investigate how current construction industry practices affect sustainability, and identify what are the principles of sustainable construction in the United Kingdom.

Previous Research Gaps

Previous researches have pointed out the negative effects that construction has on sustainability, what sustainable development entails, and some of the measures that can be taken to ensure sustainable development. Gaps in research exist in terms of principles of sustainable construction in the UK.

Research Gaps

My research will look at the principles of sustainable construction in the UK beginning with sustainable design, energy efficiency, durability, water conservation, indoor air quality, and sustainable building materials.

Research Approaches

I am going to address the above objectives by conducting a systemic review of relevant literature regarding sustainable development, sustainable construction, and the principles of sustainable construction. Upon finishing this I will summarise and present the findings from the literature review conducted.

Research Contributions

The unman dates sustainable development in order to ensure that current developmental needs are met without comprising future generation ability to meet their own needs. Accepting this proposal will be beneficial as the research targets to shed a light on the current principles of sustainable construction. In addition, stakeholders in the construction industry, researchers, and students will benefit from this research as they will be able to learn about current principles of sustainable construction in the UK. The significance of conducting this research cannot be understated. Sustainability is such a crucial aspect in the modern world. Boundaries are necessary for sustainable development; these are not absolute limits, but rather restraints on environmental resources imposed by current technological and social organization, as well as the biosphere’s ability to absorb the impacts of human activity (Ismael & Shealy, 2018). The need for long-term development is an unavoidable necessity. Anyone can benefit from this approach, from huge corporations to tiny businesses to individuals who use waste sorting to put it into practice. Regarding the environment, the resources of the Earth are depleting, and if we do not begin to care for it, future generations may be unable to provide for themselves. The building sector is crucial in addressing the difficulties of sustainable development because it deals with massive volumes of raw materials and energy in its operations with buildings generating nearly 40% of global CO2 emissions (Lima et al., 2021). According to Lima et al., (2021)when it comes to the building sector, sustainable development means maintaining economic growth while reducing material consumption (both in terms of mass and energy). It also means designing structures that are environmentally conscious. This research will cover these aspects, known as the principles of sustainable development in the United Kingdom, which will greatly contribute to the existing scientific knowledge in sustainable construction

Methodology Steps

The research methodology will employ a systematic review. This will enable going through existing relevant evidence and collecting data on sustainable development, and sustainable construction in the United Kingdom. The keywords that will be used will include sustainable development, sustainable construction, and principles of sustainable construction in the United Kingdom. The search will be performed on the following databases google scholar,

· The research methodology will employ a systematic review. This will enable going through existing relevant evidence and collecting data on sustainable development, and sustainable construction in the United Kingdom.

· The keywords that will be used will include sustainable development, sustainable construction, and principles of sustainable construction in the United Kingdom.

· The search will be performedusing web of science as the database. The date range for the search will be 5 Years.

· Abstract screening will follow to enable selecting the most relevant researches.

· Upon selection, data will be extracted, analysed, and summarized as reported and finally, the findings presented. A meta-analysis using statistical methods will be performed in the selected studies which will improve the quality of the review and conclusions.

Literature Study

Background Information

The rise of an environmental crisis in recent years has piqued public interest in the concept of sustainable development to the point where it has emerged as a shared goal for all people to strive towards. As the construction sector has grown at a rapid pace, a slew of problems has arisen as a result of a failure to exercise social responsibility. For example, according to Lima et al., (2021)there are countless engineering quality and safety failures, as well as considerable resource consumption and waste generated during the construction process. The acts of construction corporations not only threaten the interests of stakeholders, but they also cause a considerable disruption in the functioning of the construction market. Increasingly, as social transparency increases and citizens become more aware of their rights, the voice of society encouraging construction companies to fulfil their social responsibilities grows stronger by the day.

According to Lima et al., (2021) sustainability has evolved in response to environmental and socio-economic challenges, as well as the dangers they represent to human health and well-being. As a result of sustainable development, transformations in all sectors of human activity, including the construction industry, are becoming increasingly Xu& Shi, (2018) examined how using sustainable construction materials can enhance sustainability in the construction industry. Numerous variables of building construction and use have an impact on the long-term viability of a construction project. According to Goh et al., (2020) climate change is now widely acknowledged to be a severe threat to humanity’s survival. Governments in both the industrialized and developing worlds have battled to strike a balance between economic advancement and the devastating environmental consequences of that progress.

Definition of Sustainability Development

Sustainable Development can be illustrated as being the type of practice associated with the maintenance or the productivity aspects via the replacement of the utilized resources with the resources that are of equal as well as higher value without in any way degrading or in any way endangering the natural biotic systems. It is considered to be essential in binding together key concerns for the carrying capacity regarding the natural systems with the identified social as well as political and even economic issues that are experienced by humanity. Sustainability Science is regarded as being the type of study regarding the key concepts associated with sustainable development along with environmental science. There is a key emphasis on the identified present generation’s keyresponsibility to effectively regenerate as well as maintain and enhance the planetary Resources for the key ain of utility by the future generations (Huerta de Soto et al., 2021).

Sustainable Development is regarded as being the organizing principle which is essential in meeting the human development goals while at the same time Enhancing the sustainability of the capability regarding the natural systems to offer the natural resources as well as the ecosystem services on the basis upon which the given economy as well as society rely on. The desired outcome is considered as being a state regarding the society whereby the living conditions as well as the resources are utilized to go on meeting the human needs without in any way undermining the integrity as well as the stability regarding the natural system (Robertson, 2021).  Sustainable Development is usually referred to as the advancement which is associated with meeting the key needs regarding the present without in any way compromising the capability associated with the future generations to effectively meet their needs.

As the identified Concept of sustainability development advanced, it has transformed its key focus highly towards the economic advancement as well as social advancement and much more. It has been effectively suggested that the identified term sustainability ought to be perceived as the target goal of humanity regarding the human ecosystem kind of equilibrium while the term sustainable development is used to define the holistic kind of approach as well as the temporal processes which lead people to the end point regarding sustainability. The modern economies are usually endeavouring to effectively reconcile ambitious economic advancement as well as obligations associated with the preservation of the natural resources as well as ecosystems as the two are often perceived as being of conflicting nature. Rather than holding climate change commitments as well as other kinds of sustainability measures as a key remedy to economic advancement, turning along with leveraging them into the most appropriate market opportunities will do better. The economic advancement that is usually enhanced by such organized kinds of principles as well as practices in the economy is referred to as Managed Sustainable Development (MSD) (Robertson, 2021). 


Figure 2Sustainable development and construction


Source: https://images.app.goo.gl/4A5dP3g4TXFCi8TD9

The concept regarding Sustainable Development has been as well as is still considered to being subject to criticism, inclusive of the question regarding what needs to be sustained in the aspect of Sustainability Development. It has been effectively argued that there is nothing as a sustainable utility regarding the non renewable resources, because any kind of positive rate regarding exploitation is one that will eventually cause the exhaustion associated with the infinite stock of the earth. This kind of perspective usually renders the industrial revolution as being wholly unsustainable. It is vital to also note that it has been effectively argued that the key meaning associated with the identified concept has opportunistically been enhanced from the conservation management to the identified economic advancement and also that the famous Brundtland Report enhanced nothing but business as usual kind of strategy for the global advancement, with an ambiguous as well as unsubstantial concept that is attached to the public relations slogan (Ghadge et al., 2021).

History of Sustainability Development

Sustainability can be effectively defined as being the type of practice regarding the maintenance of the world processes associated with the productivity indefinitely that is natural or even the human made via the replacement of the resources utilized with the Resources that are of equal or even higher value without in any way degrading endangering of the natural biotic kinds of systems. Sustainable Development is associated with linking together the concern for the identified carrying capacity regarding the natural systems with the social as well as political and even economic issues experienced by humanity. Sustainability science is considered to be the type of study regarding the key concepts associated with sustainable development as well as environmental science. There is more focus on the responsibility of the current generation to effectively regenerate as well as maintain and even enhance the planetary resources for utility by the future generations (Ranson et al., 2021).

Sustainable Development is associated with having its roots in the idea regarding sustainable forest management which were advanced in the region of Europe during the identified 17th as well as the 18th centuries. In regard to the growing awareness regarding the given depletion associated with the timber resources in England, the famous John Evelyn is associated with having argued that sowing as well as the planting of tress had to be considered as being a national duty regarding each of the land owner so as to prevent the destructive over exploitation regarding the natural resources. Building upon the key ideas regarding Evelyn as well as the French Minister Jeanbaptiste Colbert, Von was involved in the development of the key concept regarding the management of forests for the sustained yield. His work is associated with having influenced other people which eventually led to the advancement of the Science regarding Forestry. This also impacted individuals such as Gifford, which is regarded as being the first head of the US forest Service, whose key approach to the identified forest management was effectively driven by the key idea associated with the wise utility associated with resources.

(
Figure
3
History of Sustainable Development
)

Source :
https://www.slideshare.net/EOTOWorld/sustainable-development-webinar-series-12326815/7-A_brief_history_of_sustainable

How Current Construction Industry Practices Affect Sustainability

The building sector is crucial in addressing the difficulties of sustainable development because it deals with massive volumes of raw materials and energy in its operations. When it comes to the building sector, sustainable development means maintaining economic growth while reducing material consumption (both in terms of mass and energy). It also means designing structures that are environmentally conscious. Covering all the above concepts will greatly contribute to the existing scientific knowledge in sustainable construction (Ranson et al., 2021).

The construction industry accounts for 40% of overall energy consumption in the United Kingdom, and this is now accompanied by large carbon emissions related to their construction, operation, and eventual deconstruction and disposal. Approximately 380 million tonnes of materials and resources are used by the building sector in the United Kingdom each and every calendar year(Lima et al., 2021). Additionally, the industry generates more than 100 million tonnes of garbage per year, with around 13 million tones of underutilized resources being generated by the business. That the Brundtland Commission’s sustainability objectives are not being met in the majority is a clear violation of the commission’s principles. Furthermore, it was determined that modern human activities had crossed a number of the planet’s natural boundaries (PBs). Among the many negative repercussions of construction are carbon emissions, climate change, rubbish accumulation, land-use change, and the extinction of wildlife (Goh et al., 2020).

(
Figure
4
Importance of Sustainable Development
)

Source: https://www.bigrentz.com/blog/sustainable-construction

The construction industry is one which is associated with playing a key role in the identified provision of the physical infrastructure to effectively meet the yearning needs regarding the society. It is effectively known that mankind has progressively associated with the manipulation of the natural environment with a key aim of improving their standard of living through the creation of the amenities that they need inclusive but not limited to buildings as well aa highways and others. Construction sector is one which is regarded as being among the key sources associated with environmental pollution in the universe. It is associated with having massive direct as well as indirect impacts on the surrounding. The UK is considered to be witnessing the increment in the construction projects which are associated with the increment in the pressure associated with the ecosystem as well as in the generation of numerous kind of pollutants (Robertson, 2021). The UK is considered to be suffering from the weak as well as the deteriorating ecosystems because of the limited natural resources as well as deteriorating economic and even political situation, the escalating population growth and even the lack of awareness regarding the environmental issues.

(
Figure
5
Environmental Challenges
)

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652615019101

1. Environmental Issues

Any kind of development project plan to enhance the quality regarding life is associated with having some kind of built in positive as well as negative implications. The identified advancement project ought to be effectively planned in such a way that it possesses maximum positive implications as well as minimum negative implications on the surrounding. Prediction regarding the environmental implications regarding construction in the earlier phases regarding projects as well as sites. It is anticipated that the construction damages the weak environments due to the adverse implications associated with construction (Robertson, 2021). 

The implications entail resource depletion as well as biological diversity kind of losses because of the raw material extraction as well as the landfill issues because of the waste generation, the issue of Lower worker productivity , the adverse human health issues because of the inappropriate indoor air quality, the issue of global warming, acid rain and even smog because of the emissions that are usually generated by the building product manufacture along with the transport that consumes energy. Environmental implications are usually categorized into three safeguard subjects which are ecosystems as well as natural resources and even the public Impacts as discussed below;

1. Ecosystem Impact

In the light of the wide number of the ongoing construction projects, the identified ecosystems implications associated with the construction industry has become a key issue in the current era especially in the UK and other European nations. These adverse environmental implications such as waste as well as noise, dust and even solid wastes among others are the key implications. Air emissions are usually generated from the vehicular exhaust as well as dust during the time of construction. The emissions entail C02 as well as NO2 and even SO2. Noise emissions are usually generated as an outcome of the various kinds of construction equipment’s as well as the air compressors and the vehicles (Parizek & Evangelinos, 2021).

The construction equipment as well as other kinds of sources will be associated with the generation of noise within the identified range of 70 to even 120 DB within the identified vicinity associated with the construction site. Wastes are usually generated from the construction activities as well as the labour camps and other types of sources. The identified solid waste that is usually generated during the operational phase is often categorized as being biodegradable as well as recyclable and even hazardous. Out of the whole waste that is generated 50% of it would be considered to be biodegradable as well as 20% regarding the waste would be considered to be recyclable, 30% would be considered to be inert as well as it would be assumed that a miniature quantity regarding it would be considered as being dangerous waste. Waste water is usually generated from construction activities as well as sewage, commercial activities and even other sources (Pareek & Pasumarti, 2021).

2. Natural Resources

A variety of natural resources are usually utilized during any kind of typical construction process, this types of Resources usually entail energy as well as land, materials and even water. Moreover, the construction kind of equipment Operations usually are associated with the consumption of numerous natural resources like for instance electricity as well as diesel fuel. Construction sector is considered to be accountable for the consumption of high volumes associated with the natural resources as well as in the generation of a higher amount regarding pollution as an outcome regarding energy consumption during the identified extraction as well as the transportation of the raw materials (Ghadge et al., 2021).

Construction sector is associated with the generation of global substantial environmentalimpacts. It is associated with causing approximately half regarding the total energy consumption regarding the high income nations and is considered as being accountable for a key share associated with the greenhouse gas emissions also in the developing countries. Some of the identified available statistics are associated with the illustration that the construction as well as the operations regarding the build environment is involved in accounting for the 12-16% regarding the fresh water consumption as well as 25% regarding the wood that is harvested, 30-40% regarding the energy consumption, 40% associated with the Virgin materials that are extracted and 20-30% regarding the greenhouse emissions (Ghadge et al., 2021).

3. Public Impact

Construction projects are usually located in the densely populated regions. Therefore, it is vital to note that individuals who usually live at or even closely to the construction sites are usually prone to harmful implications on their identified health due to dust as well as vibration and even noise because of some kinds of construction activities like the excavation as well as pile driving. During the identified construction phase regarding a project, construction dust as well as noise are usually considered as being two key elements which impact the human health. The health damages associated with the construction industry are associated with accounting for 26% regarding the total impact, which is associated with being less than the Ecosystem damage which accounts for 65%, however it is considered to be far beyond the resource depletion which is 8% and this justifies the necessity associated with the performance of the health damage assessment (Duane et al., 2021).

The Principles of Sustainable Development in the United Kingdom

So as the UK can be highly sustainable, it is vital to possess an agreed set of principles which can be effectively utilized as the key basis for the coordinated national policies as well as approaches and even action plan