+1443 776-2705 panelessays@gmail.com


 This week you read two very different author’s impressions of genre and what it means to identify and produce different kinds of texts. Consider the arguments of Donald Murray and Kerri closely as you complete this knowledge check reflection. As you finish your final es.say assignment and our final course reflection, consider deeply how your own writing identity and understanding of genre has transformed this semester. As you draft this Knowledge Check, consider the genres you have practiced this semester and the ones you’ve historically worked in, specific to your own career or educational background. What work is left to do?


You need to find examples from two different fields of academic arguments that strike you as being well written and effective. If possible, examine at least one from an online academic database so you can see what features periodical articles tend to offer. Then spend time looking at each of your academic articles and arguments closely and answering and reflect on the following questions: 

  • Do they exemplify the key features of academic arguments described in Chapter 17? 
  • How are these academic articles organized? 
  • What use do they make of visuals? 
  • What aspects of Dirk and Murray can you identify in each of these academic articles? Particularly, do you see distinguished genre features or the author’s identity in these texts? 

You may find these articles using an online search engine or may utilize the databases from week three.


  • Reflection must meet a minimum of 500 words in length 
  • Original Title at the top of your reflection  “Walker WK1 Reflection” is not original. Try and think outside of the box and pull something unique and individual from our weekly assigned readings
  • Assignment will be Assessed using Knowledge Check Rubric


A Note about the Cover

Is everything really an argument? Seeing the images on the cover of
this book might make you wonder. The “Free Speech Zone” sign, for
example, instantly calls to mind the debates across the United States
about the limits of free expression, especially on college campuses.
The ominous-looking hand coming out of the laptop suggests the ease
with which hackers obtain personal data. Does the image of teens
playing on cell phones in the back seat of a car argue for or against the
ways that technology is shaping how we are communicating with one
another? The polar bear on a shrinking ice floe reminds us of the
scientific fact of climate change but also invites a discussion of how
powerful visuals can sway our opinions and beliefs. As for the “100%
vegan” sticker, what’s your impression? Is it a proud proclamation of


one’s identity or values? A straightforward fact about a food’s origins?
A sharp commentary on the influence of advertising on the food
industry? What’s your take?





Eighth Edition

Everything’s an Argument with Readings
Andrea A. Lunsford


John J. Ruszkiewicz


Keith Walters



For Bedford/St. Martin’s

Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Learning Humanities: Edwin Hill
Executive Program Director for English: Leasa Burton
Senior Program Manager: John E. Sullivan III
Executive Marketing Manager: Joy Fisher Williams
Director of Content Development, Humanities: Jane Knetzger
Senior Developmental Editor: Rachel Goldberg
Associate Editor: Lexi DeConti
Editorial Assistant: William Hwang
Senior Content Project Manager: Ryan Sullivan
Senior Workflow Project Manager: Jennifer Wetzel
Production Coordinator: Brianna Lester
Media Project Manager: Jodi Isman
Media Editor: Julia Domenicucci
Editorial Services: Lumina Datamatics, Inc.
Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc.
Cartographer: Mapping Specialists, Ltd.
Text Permissions Manager: Kalina Ingham
Text Permissions Editor: Arthur Johnson, Lumina Datamatics, Inc.
Photo Permissions Editor: Angela Boehler
Photo Researcher: Krystyna Borgen, Lumina Datamatics, Inc.
Director of Design, Content Management: Diana Blume
Text Design: Claire Seng-Niemoeller, Anna Palchik, and Graphic
World, Inc.
Cover Design: William Boardman
Cover Images: (laptop) fStop Images/Epoxydude/Getty Images; (polar


bear) dagsjo/Getty Images; (vegan label) Good_Studio/Getty Images;
(free speech sign) Imfoto/Shutterstock; (kids with cell phones) Hero
Images/Getty Images

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013, 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin’s.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except
as may be permitted by law or expressly permitted in writing by the

1 2 3 4 5 6    23 22 21 20 19 18

For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street,
Boston, MA 02116

ISBN-13: 978-1-319-21159-2(mobi)

Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book
on pages 793–94, which constitute an extension of the copyright page.
Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the
art selections they cover.


When we began work on this text in 1996 (the first edition came out in
1998), we couldn’t have anticipated all the events of the next two
tumultuous decades, or all the changes to public and private discourse,
or the current deeply divided state of our nation. But we have tried
hard, over these decades, to track such changes and the ways rhetoric
and argument have evolved and responded to them.

Certainly, we recognized the increasingly important role digital culture
plays in all our lives, and so with each new edition we have included
more on the technologies of communication, particularly those
associated with social media; and we early on recognized that, like
rhetoric itself, social media can be used for good or for ill, to bring
people together or to separate them.

We have also carefully tracked the forms that arguments take today,
from cartoons and graphic narratives to blogs and other postings to
multimodal projects of almost every conceivable kind. While argument
has always surrounded us, today it does so in an amazing array of
genres and forms, including aural and visual components that
strengthen and amplify arguments.

The sheer proliferation of information (not to mention misinformation,
disinformation, and outright lies) that bombards all writers led us to
reaffirm our commitment to studying and teaching style, since (as
Richard Lanham and others argue) in the age of information overload,
style is the tool writers possess to try to capture and keep the attention
of audiences. Attention to style reveals other changes, such as the


increasing use of informal registers and conversational styles even in
academic arguments.

Perhaps most important, though, a look back over the last twenty-two
years reaffirms the crucial role that rhetoric can and should play in
personal, work, and school lives. At its best, rhetoric is the art, theory,
and practice of ethical communication, needed more sorely today than
perhaps ever before. Everything’s an Argument with Readings presents
this view of rhetoric and illustrates it with a fair and wide range of
perspectives and views, which we hope will inspire student writers to
think of themselves as rhetors, as Quintilian’s “good person, speaking

Key Features
Two books in one, neatly linked. Up front is a brief guide to
Aristotelian, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument; common types of
arguments; presenting arguments; and researching arguments. In the
back is a thematically organized anthology of readings in a wide range
of genres. Handy cross-references in the margins allow students to
move easily from the argument chapters to specific examples in the
readings and from the readings to appropriate rhetorical instruction.

Short, relatable excerpts weave in the debates that rage around us.
From #metoo tweets and protest posters to essays and scholarly
writing, boldfaced examples illustrate the arguments happening in
politics, economics, journalism, and media, with brief student-friendly

Five thematic readings chapters that encourage students to explore


complex arguments. Readings on “How Does Popular Culture
Stereotype You?,” “Has the Internet Destroyed Privacy?,” and “How
Free Should Campus Speech Be?” demand that students consider the
many sides of contemporary issues across the political spectrum, going
beyond a simple pro/con stance.

A real-world, full-color design that builds students’ understanding
of visual rhetoric. Presenting readings in the style of their original
publications helps students recognize and think about the effect that
design and visuals have on written and multimodal arguments.

New to This Edition
A new section on rhetorical listening in Chapter 1. The very first
chapter of the eighth edition now emphasizes the importance of
listening rhetorically and respectfully, encouraging readers to move
beyond “echo chambers” and build bridges among all viewpoints.

Eight new full-length models in the guide provide engaging, topical
arguments of fact, definition, evaluation, cause and effect, proposals,
and rhetorical analysis. Legal scholar Stephen L. Carter offers a
Toulmin analysis of whether racial epithets should be considered free
speech, while New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof presents an
op-ed in defense of public wilderness.

Five new annotated student essays address topics students care about,
from millennials’ love of food to breaking a social media addiction.

Thirty-one engaging new readings on hot-button issues such as free
speech, food, language, privacy, and stereotypes. Selections


represent a range of genres and span the full gamut of social and
political views, including:

excerpts from a recent Gallup poll showing what college students
think about First Amendment issues
visual arguments and a scholarly essay supporting and critiquing
the concept of racial microaggressions
best-selling essayist Roxane Gay on the language we use to
describe sexual violence
an Economist blog post acknowledging that sport shooting can be,
well, fun
an argument against veganism . . . written by a vegan

A new introduction in the instructor’s notes. Focusing on the
teaching of argument, this new introduction gives experienced and
first-time instructors a strong pedagogical foundation. Sample syllabi
for both semester and quarter courses provide help for pacing all types
of courses.

We’re all in. As always.
Bedford/St. Martin’s is as passionately committed to the discipline of
English as ever, working hard to provide support and services that
make it easier for you to teach your course your way.

Find community support at the Bedford/St. Martin’s English
Community (community.macmillan.com), where you can follow our
Bits blog for new teaching ideas, download titles from our professional
resource series, and review projects in the pipeline.


Choose curriculum solutions that offer flexible custom options,
combining our carefully developed print and digital resources,
acclaimed works from Macmillan’s trade imprints, and your own
course or program materials to provide the exact resources your
students need. Our approach to customization makes it possible to
create a customized project uniquely suited for your students and,
based on your enrollment size, return money to your department and
raise your institutional profile with a high-impact author visit through
the Macmillan Author Program (“MAP”).

Rely on outstanding service from your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales
representative and editorial team. Contact us or visit
macmillanlearning.com to learn more about any of the options below.

LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings:
Where Students Learn
LaunchPad provides engaging content and new ways to get the most
out of your book. Get an interactive e-book combined with assessment
tools in a fully customizable course space; then assign and mix our
resources with yours.

Reading comprehension quizzes, to help you quickly gauge your
students’ understanding of the assigned reading.
Interactive exercises and tutorials for reading, writing, and
Diagnostics provide opportunities to assess areas for improvement
and assign additional exercises based on students’ needs. Visual
reports show performance by topic, class, and student as well as
improvement over time.


Pre-built units—including readings, videos, quizzes, and more—
are easy to adapt and assign by adding your own materials and
mixing them with our high-quality multimedia content and ready-
made assessment options, such as LearningCurve adaptive
quizzing and Exercise Central.
Use LaunchPad on its own or integrate it with your school’s
learning management system so that your class is always on the
same page.

LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings can be
purchased on its own or packaged with the print book at a significant
discount. An activation code is required. To order LaunchPad for
Everything’s an Argument with Readings with the print book, use
ISBN 978-1-319-25363-9. For more information, go to

Choose from Alternative Formats of Everything’s an
Argument with Readings
Bedford/St. Martin’s offers a range of formats. Choose what works
best for you and your students:

Paperback brief edition To order the paperback edition of
Everything’s an Argument, use ISBN 978-1-319-05627-8.
Popular e-book formats For details of our e-book partners, visit

Select Value Packages
Add value to your text by packaging a Bedford/St. Martin’s resource,
such as Writer’s Help 2.0, with Everything’s an Argument with


Readings at a significant discount. Contact your sales representative for
more information.

Writer’s Help 2.0 is a powerful online writing resource that helps
students find answers, whether they are searching for writing advice on
their own or as part of an assignment.

Smart search. Built on research with more than 1,600 student
writers, the smart search in Writer’s Help 2.0 provides reliable
results even when students use novice terms, such as flow and
Trusted content from our best-selling handbooks. Andrea
Lunsford’s user-friendly tone ensures that students have clear
advice and examples for all of their writing questions.
Diagnostics that help establish a baseline for instruction.
Assign diagnostics to identify areas of strength and areas for
improvement and to help students plan a course of study. Use
visual reports to track performance by topic, class, and student as
well as improvement over time.
Adaptive exercises that engage students. Writer’s Help 2.0
includes LearningCurve, game-like online quizzing that adapts to
what students already know and helps them focus on what they
need to learn.

Student access is packaged with Everything’s an Argument with
Readings at a significant discount. Order ISBN 978-1-319-25623-4 for
Writer’s Help 2.0, Lunsford Version, to ensure your students have easy
access to online writing support. Students who rent or buy a used book
can purchase access and instructors may request free access at


Instructor Resources
You have a lot to do in your course. We want to make it easy for you to
find the support you need—and to get it quickly.

Instructor’s Notes for Everything’s an Argument with Readings is
available as a PDF that can be downloaded from
macmillanlearning.com. Visit the instructor resources tab for
Everything’s an Argument with Readings. In addition to chapter
overviews and teaching tips, the instructor’s manual offers an
introduction about teaching the argument course, sample syllabi,
correlations to the Council of Writing Program Administrators’
Outcomes Statement, and potential answers to the “Respond” questions
in the book.

We owe a debt of gratitude to many people for making Everything’s an
Argument with Readings possible. Our first thanks must go to the
thousands of people we have taught in our writing courses over nearly
four decades, particularly students at the Ohio State University,
Stanford University, the University of Texas at Austin, and Portland
State University. Almost every chapter in this book has been informed
by a classroom encounter with a student whose shrewd observation or
perceptive question sent an ambitious lesson plan spiraling to the
ground. (Anyone who has tried to teach claims and warrants on the fly
to skeptical first-year writers will surely appreciate why we have
qualified our claims in the Toulmin chapter so carefully.) But students
have also provided the motive for writing this book. More than ever,
they need to know how to read and write arguments effectively if they


are to secure a place in a world growing ever smaller and more
rhetorically challenging.

We are deeply grateful to the editors at Bedford/St. Martin’s who have
contributed their formidable talents to this book. In particular, we want
to thank the ingenious and efficient Rachel Goldberg for guiding us so
patiently and confidently—helping us locate just the right items
whenever we needed fresh examples and images and gracefully
recasting passage after passage to satisfy permissions mandates. Senior
content project manager Ryan Sullivan was relentlessly upbeat and
kind in all his communications, making the ever-more-complex stages
of production almost a pleasure. We also appreciate the extensive
support and help of Lexi DeConti, who kept us attuned to examples
and readings that might appeal to students today. We are similarly
grateful to senior program manager John Sullivan, whose support was
unfailing; Kalina Ingham, Arthur Johnson, and Tom Wilcox, for text
permissions; Angela Boehler and Krystyna Borgen, for art
permissions; William Boardman, for our cover design; Bridget Leahy,
copyeditor; and William Hwang, editorial assistant. All of you made
editing the eighth edition feel fresh and creative.

We’d also like to thank the astute instructors who reviewed the seventh
edition: Brigitte Anderson, University of Pikeville; Samantha Battrick,
Truman State University; Kathryn Bennett, Old Dominion University;
Jeanne Bohannon, Kennesaw State University; Rebecca Cepek,
Duquesne University; Laura Dumin, University of Central Oklahoma;
Tim Engles, Eastern Illinois University; Karen Feldman, Seminole
State College of Florida; Africa Fine, Palm Beach State College;


Darius Frasure, Mountain View College; Erin Gallagher, Washington
State University; Ben Graydon, Daytona State College; Joseph
Hernandez, Mt. San Jacinto College; Julie Moore-Felux, Northwest
Vista College; Laurie Murray, Anderson University; Kolawole Olaiya,
Anderson University; Leslie Rapparlie, University of Colorado;
Thomas Reynolds, Northwestern State University; Loreen Smith,
Isothermal Community College; Benjamin Syn, University of
Colorado; Gina Szabady, Lane Community College; Amy Walton,
Iowa State University; and Miriam Young, Truman State University.

Thanks, too, to Sherrie Weller of Loyola Chicago University and
Valerie Duff-Stroutmann of Newbury College, who updated the
instructor’s notes for this eighth edition with a new introduction, new
model syllabi, new points for discussion, and new classroom activities.
We hope this resource will be useful as instructors build their courses.
Finally, we are grateful to the students whose fine argumentative
essays or materials appear in our chapters: Cameron Hauer, Kate
Beispel, Jenny Kim, Laura Tarrant, Natasha Rodriguez, Caleb Wong,
Juliana Chang, George Chidiac, and Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner. We
hope that Everything’s an Argument with Readings responds to what
students and instructors have said they want and need.

Andrea A. Lunsford

John J. Ruszkiewicz

Keith Walters

Correlation to Council of Writing Program


Administrators’ (WPA) Outcomes
Everything’s an Argument with Readings works with the Council of
Writing Program Administrators’ Outcomes Statement for first-year
composition courses (last updated 2014).

2014 WPA

Support in Everything’s an Argument with Readings, 8e


Learn and use
key rhetorical
analyzing and
composing a
variety of texts.

Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading
Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), establishes the central
elements of the rhetorical situation and encourages
rhetorical listening.

Chapter 6, “Rhetorical Analysis” (pp. 97–132), further
develops these concepts and teaches students how to
analyze a rhetorical analysis and compose their own.

Each chapter offers dozens of written, visual, and
multimodal texts to analyze, in both the guide portion
and the thematic reader.

Gain experience
reading and
composing in
several genres to
understand how
shape and are
shaped by
readers’ and

Everything’s an Argument with Readings provides
engaging readings across genres, from academic essays
and newspaper editorials to tweets and infographics.
“Respond” boxes throughout each chapter (e.g., pp.
56–57) invite students to think critically about the
material. For more genre variety, Everything’s an
Argument with Readings also contains a five-chapter
thematic reader with additional multimodal genres,
including an art installation, Web articles, scholarly
essays, and political cartoons.


practices and

Each chapter on a specific type of argument features
project ideas (e.g., p. 186), giving students detailed
prompts to write their own arguments of fact,
arguments of definition, evaluations, causal arguments,
and proposals.

Develop facility
in responding to
a variety of
situations and
contexts, calling
for purposeful
shifts in voice,
tone, level of
design, medium,
and/or structure.

Chapter 13, “Style in Arguments” (pp. 321–45),
addresses word choice, tone, sentence structure,
punctuation, and figurative language, with engaging
examples of each.

The “Cultural Contexts for Argument” boxes
throughout the text (e.g., p. 163) address how people
from other cultures might respond to different styles or
structures of argument. This feature offers suggestions
on how to think about argument in an unfamiliar
cultural context.

Understand and
use a variety of
technologies to
address a range
of audiences.

Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402),
addresses how new media has transformed the array of
choices for making arguments and reaching audiences.
This chapter teaches how to analyze multimodal
arguments as well as how to create them through Web
sites, videos, wikis, blogs, social media, memes, posters,
and comics.

Match the
capacities of
(e.g., print &
electronic) to

Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62), discusses
the power of visual rhetoric and how students can use
visuals in their own work.

Chapter 15, “Presenting Arguments” (pp. 363–80),
includes material on incorporating various media into
presentations and Webcasts.

Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402),
analyzes the evolving landscape of argument across
media platforms.


Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37),
covers the conventions of academic arguments.

Critical Thinking,
Reading, and

Use composing
and reading for
inquiry, learning,
thinking, and
in various

Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading
Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), features a section called
“Why Listen to Arguments Rhetorically and
Respectfully” (pp. 7–8). It teaches students to listen
openly and constructively and calls attention to the
need to escape “echo chambers,” respectfully consider
all viewpoints, and find common ground.

Throughout Everything’s an Argument with Readings,
students are invited to delve deeper into current issues
in the world around them, considering the various
arguments presented in tweets, newspapers, scholarly
papers, court rulings, and even bumper stickers.
Everything’s an Argument with Readings guides students
in asking critical questions about these contexts and
learning how to respond to and create their own
compositions. Chapters dedicated to central types of
argument explain how students might best approach
each writing situation. The chapters close with a guide
to writing arguments of that type:

Chapter 8, “Arguments of Fact” (pp. 164–96)

Chapter 9, “Arguments of Definition” (pp. 197–223)

Chapter 10, “Evaluations” (pp. 224–54)

Chapter 11, “Causal Arguments” (pp. 255–85)

Chapter 12, “Proposals” (pp. 286–318)


Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402)

Read a diverse
range of texts,
especially to
assertion and
evidence, to
patterns of
organization, to
between verbal
and nonverbal
elements, and
how these
features function
for different
audiences and

Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63),
examines making claims and using evidence to support
those claims. It delves into the structure of Rogerian and
Toulmin arguments, showing how different argument
types work for different writing situations.

Each Guide to Writing features sections on
“Formulating a Claim” and “Thinking about
Organization” (e.g., pp. 212 and 214), emphasizing the
use of evidence and the structure of the argument.

Locate and
evaluate primary
and secondary
including journal
articles, essays,
databases, and
informal Internet

Chapter 18, “Finding Evidence” (pp. 438–53), covers
locating evidence from print, electronic, and field
research sources.

Chapter 19, “Evaluating Sources” (pp. 454–63),
addresses how to assess those sources effectively.

Use strategies — 
such as

Chapter 20, “Using Sources,” provides detailed
explanations of summary, paraphrase, and quotation
and when to use each approach (pp. 467–73). The


critique, and
— to compose
texts that
integrate the
writer’s ideas
with those from

chapter discusses framing with introductory phrases
and signal verbs, and it presents multiple ways to
connect source material to a student’s own ideas — by
establishing a context, introducing a term or concept,
developing a claim, highlighting differences, and
avoiding “patchwriting” (pp. 480–82).

Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity” (pp.
484–93), highlights the importance of acknowledging
another writer’s work.

Chapter 22, “Documenting Sources” (pp. 494–532),
concludes the research section of the book with a
discussion of MLA and APA documentation, including a
wide range of citation models in both formats.


Develop a
writing project
through multiple

Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37),
stresses the importance of working through multiple
drafts of a project, using revision and peer feedback to
improve the document.

Develop flexible
strategies for
rereading, and

Writing is a fundamental focus of Everything’s an
Argument with Readings, and students learn to critique
their own work and the work of others in almost every
part of the book. Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a
specific type of argument in the Part 2 chapters,
contains step-by-step advice on drafting, researching,
and organizing, as well as peer review questions about
the claim being made, the evidence provided for the
claim, and the organization and style of the essay.

The Guide to Writing also asks students to review their
spelling, punctuation, mechanics, documentation, and


Use composing
processes and
tools as a means
to discover and
reconsider ideas.

Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63),
provides a clear explanation for how to construct an
argument and support it effectively, and it includes a
brief annotated model from a classic text.

The “Developing an Academic Argument” section (pp.
411–18) in Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp.
405–37), guides students through the specific process of
developing a paper in an academic setting, from
selecting a topic and exploring it in depth to entering
into the conversation around the chosen topic. Two
annotated examples of academic arguments are
provided at the end of the chapter.

Experience the
and social
aspects of

Many “Respond” questions have students work in pairs
or groups to analyze rhetorical situations, arguments, or
appeals. See p. 36, for instance.

In Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity”
(pp. 484–93), students learn the importance of giving
credit, getting permission to use the materials of others,
citing sources appropriately, and acknowledging
collaboration with their peers.

Learn to give and
act on
feedback to
works in

Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a specific type of
argument in the Part 2 chapters, contains a “Getting
and Giving Response: Questions for Peer Review”
section (e.g., pp. 183–85) tailored to that argument type.
These questions address the claim being made, the
evidence provided for the claim, and the organization
and style of the essay.

Adapt composing
processes for a
variety of
technologies and

Awareness of technology runs throughout Everything’s
an Argument with Readings, beginning in the first
chapter with an exploration of arguments made via
Twitter. A particular focus on multimodal arguments is
made in Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62),


which covers how effective images can be and instructs
students on incorporating them to achieve specific
rhetorical purposes, and in Chapter 16, “Multimodal
Arguments” (pp. 381–402), which focuses on how
technology offers new platforms and opportunities for
composition, as well as some new pitfalls to avoid.
These chapters provide students with tools for creating
their own multimodal compositions.

Reflect on the
development of
practices and
how those
influence their

Everything’s an Argument with …