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Capital tour

Watch videos on the Capitol an write a two (2) to three (3) page report following the rubric below

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LMDT_RPCqs

For number 4 on the grading rubric NURS 478 (HealthCare Policy and Politics). I have attached the book to give you an idea on the course.

Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health
Care

EIGHTH EDITION

Diana J. Mason, PhD, RN, FAAN
Consultant and Journalist, Senior Policy Service Professor, Center for Health Policy and Media
Engagement, School of Nursing, George Washington University, Washington, DC
Professor Emerita, Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, City University of New York, New York,
New York

Elizabeth Dickson, PhD, RN
Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, Center for Participatory Research, University of New
Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Monica R. McLemore, PhD, RN, MPH, FAAN
Associate Professor, Family Health Care Nursing, Clinician-Scientist, Advancing New Standards in
Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California

G. Adriana Perez, PhD, RN, CRNP, ANP-BC,
FAAN, FGSA
Assistant Professor of Nursing, Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, Senior Fellow,
Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania

2

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

About the editors

Contributors

Reviewers

Contents

Forewords

Preface

Acknowledgments
UNIT 1. Introduction to Policy and Politics in Nursing and Health
Care

1. Frameworks for action in policy and politics

Focus on policy: What policy?

The affordable care act

Upstream factors: Social determinants of health

Nursing and health and social policy

4

Policy and the policy process

Forces that shape health and social policy

The framework for action

Policy and political competence

Nursing essentials

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

2. Historical perspective on policy, politics, and nursing

“Not enough to be a messenger”

Bringing together the past for the present: What we learned from history

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

3. Advocacy in nursing and health care

Evolution of nursing’s advocacy role

Models of nursing advocacy

Preparing nurses for their role as advocates

Overcoming barriers to advocacy

Lived experience of advocacy

Discussion questions

References

4. Learning the ropes of policy and politics

5

Political consciousness raising: The “aha” moment

Getting started

Mentor advantage

Educational opportunities

Fellowship experience

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

5. TAKING ACTION: Just say yes: Learning to move beyond the fear

Mentors, passion, and curiosity

Running for office

References

6. A primer on political philosophy

Political philosophy

The state

Gender and race in political philosophy

The welfare state

Political philosophy and implications for nurses

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

7. The policy process

Health policy and politics

Unique aspects of U.S. policymaking

6

Conceptual basis for policymaking

Nurses’ competence in the policymaking process

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

8. Political analysis and strategies

What is political analysis?

Political strategies

References

Online resources

9. Communication and conflict management in health policy

Understanding conflict

A strategic communication framework

The strategy for effective communication

General rules for successful personal interactions

Challenges

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

10. Research as a political and policy tool

So what is policy?

What is research when it comes to policy?

The chemistry between research and policymaking

7

Using research to create, inform, and shape policy

Research and political will

Research: Not just for journals

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

11. Using research to advance health and social policies for children

Children’s rights in the United States

Childhood as a developmental stage

Child well-being in the United States

Poverty and toxic stress

Current child health policy

Opportunities for improvement in child health policy

Implications for advocacy, policy, and research

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

12. Using the power of the media to influence health policy and politics

Media landscape

What is the media?

How does media matter?

Who controls the media?

Media to promote health

Effective use of media

Analyzing media

8

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

13. TAKING ACTION: Billboards and a social media campaign

References

14. Health policy, politics, and professional ethics

The ethics of influencing policy

Professional ethics and moral agency

U.S. health care reform

Allocating scarce resources

Health care disparities

Ethics and work environment policies

Conclusion

References

UNIT 2. Health Care Delivery and Financing

15. The changing united states health care system

Overview of the U.S. health care system

Transforming health care through technology

Health status and trends

Opportunities and challenges for nursing in the U.S. health care system

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

16. A primer on health economics of nursing and health policy

9

Economics as a discipline

A fundamental economic tool

Cost-effectiveness of nursing services

Impact of health reform on nursing economics

Discussion questions

References

17. Financing health care in the united states

Historical perspectives on health care financing

Government programs

The private (commercial) health insurance

The problem of continually rising health care costs

Reimbursement mechanisms and payment reform

What is next?

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

18. The affordable care act: An uncertain future

Affordable care act design elements

Affordable care act implementation and management

Impact of the affordable care act

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

10

19. The national association of hispanic nurses educating multicultural communities on the
patient protection and affordable care act

Latinos and access to health insurance coverage

A call to action for the national association of hispanic nurses

Partnerships to increase coverage in communities initiative

Action that is results oriented

Lessons learned and recommendations for future efforts

References

20. Patient engagement and public policy: Emerging new paradigms and roles

Innovative exemplars of patient engagement

Patient engagement and federal initiatives

The role of nursing in advancing patient engagement

From patient engagement to citizen health

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

21. The marinated mind: Why overuse is an epidemic and how to reduce it

Commonly overused interventions

Reasons for overuse

Physician and nurse acknowledgment of overuse

Public reporting to reduce overuse

Journalists advocate for more transparency about overuse

Increase in the peer-reviewed literature on overuse

Discussion questions

11

References

Online resources

22. Policy approaches to address health disparities

Origins of health equity policies

Health disparities and social determinants of health

From the heckler report to the affordable care act: Ongoing changes

ACA and disparities in medicaid coverage

Health disparities remain after ACA

Disparities in health care access and the need for nurses

Summary

References

23. TAKING ACTION: Policy advocacy for American Indian/Alaska native children:
School nutrition and indigenous food sovereignty

American Indian/Alaska native health challenges

Historical influences on childhood obesity

A shift in nutritional health

Role of schools in nutritional health of AI/AN children

My role in advocacy for school nutrition

Opportunities for advocacy and policy engagement

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

24. TAKING ACTION: Addressing the health needs of immigrant/migrant farmworkers

Historical context of migration: Farmworkers

The bracero program (1942–1964)

12

The rise of the united farmworkers union

Migrant farmworkers: Demographic profile

Migrant farmworkers: Occupational health

Epidemiological studies: Update

A call for social justice and social determinants of health approach

TAKING ACTION: Health care in the fields

Discussion questions

References

25. The unfulfilled promise of mental health and addiction parity

Federal legislative milestones toward achieving behavioral health parity

Gaps, challenges, and threats to parity law

State-level implementation

Implications for mental health nurses: Issues and strategies

Discussion questions

References

Online resources: Federal enforcement agencies

Advocacy resources

26. Improving LGBTQ+ health: Nursing policy can make a difference

Recognizing and addressing LGBTQ+ issues

Importance of sexual orientation and gender identity data collection

LGBTQ+ across the lifespan

Recent policy issues

Nursing education policy

Health care organizations and policy

Recommendations

13

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

27. Reproductive health policy

Historical perspectives on women’s health and U.S. policy

When women’s reproductive health needs are not met

What is equitable reproductive health policy?

Abortion policy and contraception

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

28. Public and population health: Promoting the health of the public

Public health, policy, and nursing

The state of public health and the public’s health

The public health system

Public health core functions

Future directions

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

29. TAKING ACTION: Influencing public health in a politically charged environment

Not a politician

A tale of two cities in West New York

14

Safe kids day

Flu fighters

Influencing policy and revising ordinances

Advocating for social justice

References

30. Disaster response and public health emergency preparedness

Purpose statement

Background and significance

Presidential declarations of disaster and the stafford act

Post-Katrina emergency management reform act (2006)

September 11, 2001: A sentinel event

The politics underlying disaster and public health emergency policy

Project bioshield (2004)

Public readiness and emergency preparedness act 2005

National commission on children and disasters 2009, 2013

National terrorism advisory system (2011)

National health security strategy and implementation plan (2015–18)

Pandemic and all-hazards preparedness reauthorization act (2013)

Office of the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (2018)

Public health emergency preparedness act (2018)

Strategic national stockpile

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

15

31. Advancing new models of primary care

Primary care and social determinants of health

Access and the ACA

Team-based care

The virtualization of primary care

Primary care settings

Transitioning from fee-for-service to value-based payments

Looking to the future: Where will science take US?

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

32. Family caregiving and social policy

Who are the family caregivers?

What do caregivers do?

Unpaid value of family caregiving

Personal costs of caregiving

Supporting family caregivers

Family caregiving policy

The future

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

33. Dual eligibles: Challenges and innovations in care

Who are the duals?

16

What are the challenges?

Health care delivery reforms that hold promise

Implication for nurses

Policy implications

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

34. Home care, hospice, and community-based care: Evolving policy

Fundamental underpinnings

Innovative models in the home and in the community

From grassroots to national policy

Community-based palliative care

Medicare advantage expansion of supplemental benefits

Accountable health communities

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

35. Long-term services and supports policy issues

Poor quality of care

Weak enforcement

Inadequate nursing staffing levels

Corporate ownership

Financial accountability

Other issues

17

Home and community-based services

Public financing

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

36. The united states military and veterans administration health systems: Contemporary
overview and policy challenges

Structure of military and veterans health care

Unique care topics across the continuum

Policy challenges

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

UNIT 3. Policy and Politics in the Government

37. Contemporary issues in government

Six key health issues challenging policymakers

Political and sociological barriers to addressing key issues

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

38. How government works: What you need to know to influence the process

Government oversight of health policy and health care

Federalist system: Three levels of government

18

Influence and how it works

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

39. An overview of legislative and regulatory processes

The power structure

How a bill becomes a law

The regulatory process

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

40. Lobbying policymakers: Individual and collective strategies

Nurses: Advocates or lobbyists?

Is it lobbying, advocacy, or both?

Public sentiment of lobbyists

Professional standards and regulations for lobbying

Nursing and campaign contributions

Advocacy and you: Connecting with your legislators

Meeting in person

Written communications

Wrap-up

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

19

41. Political activity: Different rules for government employees

History of efforts to restrict political activities of government employees

The Hatch Act: What is it?

Amendments to the Hatch Act

What political activities are permitted and prohibited by the Hatch Act?

U.S. department of defense regulations on political activity

New challenges to the Hatch Act—social media and telework

Enforcement of the Hatch Act

Recent violations of the Hatch Act

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

42. TAKING ACTION: Reflective musings from a nurse politician

Engage! mountains can be moved with three votes

The gender factor

Health in all policies!

Example #1: Creating a health and wellness campus

Example #2: Building a therapeutic justice system

Personal reflections

References

43. TAKING ACTION: Running against the odds: There’s a nurse in the assembly

44. Political appointments

Considering political appointment?

Identifying political appointments

20

Support for appointment

Networking: Power of connections

Political party affiliation

Preparing for appointment

Holding an appointed position

Conclusion: Influencing public policy

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

45. Nursing and the courts

The judicial system

The role of precedent

The constitution and branches of government

Judicial review

Impact litigation

Enforcing legal and regulatory requirements

Roe v. Wade and access to abortion

Criminal courts

Influencing and responding to court decisions

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

46. Nursing licensure and regulation

The purpose of professional regulation

21

Sources of regulation

Licensure board authority and responsibilities

Licensure requirements

Disciplinary offenses

Regulation’s shortcomings

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

47. TAKING ACTION: Nurse, educator, and legislator: My journey to the delaware general
assembly and as lieutenant governor

My political roots

Volunteering and campaigning

There’s a reason it is called “running” for office

A day in the life of a nurse-legislator and Lt. Governor

What I’ve been able to accomplish as a nurse-legislator and Lt. Governor

Tips for influencing elected officials’ health policy decisions

Is it worth it?

References

UNIT 4. Policy and Politics in the Workplace and Workforce

48. Policy and politics in health care organizations

Follow the money

Health and social determinants

Population health

Disruption to the industry

22

Opportunities for nursing

Mergers and acquisition

Key merger and acquisition activities

Post-merger considerations

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

49. Taking your place at the table: Board appointments and service

Why nurses?

Competencies required of board members

Process for identifying readiness for board service

Which boards are the right fit?

Resources available through nurses on boards coalition

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

50. TAKING ACTION: Nurse leaders in the boardroom

Getting started

Alicia’s journey

Linda’s journey

References

51. Quality and safety in health care: Policy issues

Performance measures and public reporting

23

Value-based quality outcomes of care

Regulation

Unintended consequences of policies intended to improve care

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

52. Politics and evidence-based practice and policy

The players and their stakes

The role of politics in generating evidence

The politics of research application in clinical practice

The politics of applying research in policy formulation

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

53. The nursing workforce

Characteristics of the workforce

Expanding the workforce

Increasing diversity

Retaining workers

Addressing the nursing workforce issues

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

24

54. Rural health care: Workforce challenges and opportunities

Defining rural

What makes health and health care different for rural populations?

Health disparities of rural americans

Rural health care

Rural policy, rural politics

The opportunities and challenges of rural health

Actions through policy and politics

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

55. TAKING ACTION: Increasing specialty medical care access in rural communities

New Mexico at a glance

Access telemedicine: “Access to critical cerebral emergency support services”

Access project origins

Access nursing roles and responsibilities

Building brick by brick

Lessons learned: It’s all about relationships

Discussion questions

References

56. Nurse staffing ratios: Policy options

The establishment of California’s regulations

What has happened as a result of California’s minimum nurse staffing ratios?

Are hospitals meeting the minimum nurse staffing ratios?

Has the mix of staff changed?

25

Did wages for nurses increase?

Have hospitals reduced services and uncompensated care?

Have hospitals suffered financial losses?

Are nurses more satisfied?

Did the minimum nurse staffing ratios improve the quality of care?

What’s next?

Financial incentives for nurse staffing improvement

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

57. The contemporary work environment of nursing

Definitions

Introduction

Demographics of the new workforce

Hidden curriculum

Case scenario

Process for organizational policy development for case scenario

Harassment

Bullying and microaggressions

Curriculum on diversity

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

58. TAKING ACTION: Racism in the workplace

Racism

26

Policies to eradicate racism

Racism in the workplace

Actionable steps to eradicate structural racism

Summary

References

59. Collective strategies for transformation in the workplace

Transformation

Creating a culture of excellence

Assessment of setting and structure

Formula for success

Implementing transformational change

Lessons learned

Examples of change decisions

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

60. Political context of advanced practice nursing

Advanced practice registered nurse practice, federal and state laws

Assessing progress on the institute of medicine report recommendation

Persistent federal barriers

Federal trade commission

State progress in increasing access to APRN care

Insurance company credentialing

Hospital privileges

27

Physician opposition

Media and messaging

Political strategy and tactics

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

61. TAKING ACTION: Never underestimate the power of a personal story

The problem

Background

Commitment to change

Why hasn’t this policy been changed?

What is needed for change?

Welcome to policy

Relationship building

Joining forces

The meeting

Decision agenda

Concessions

Three key factors

Call to action

References

62. TAKING ACTION: Removing APRN regulatory barriers in West Virginia

History of advanced practice registered nurse regulation in West Virginia

Historic shift of power provides new opportunities

Coalition building

28

Strategic efforts

Trajectory of the bill

Lessons learned

References

63. TAKING ACTION: Full practice authority: A tale of two states

A moment in time: Nurse practitioner past portends its future

A new day: The nurse practitioner movement matures

Lessons learned: Finding and using your voice

Moving forward: It takes a village to build a bench

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

64. Policy and politics in nursing academia

Academic freedom as central to nursing education

Internal politics and policies

External politics and policies

Summary: Influence of politics and policies on academic nursing

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

65. The intersection of technology and health care: Policy and practice implications

Public policy support for HIT

Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record Incentive Programs and HIT

Political and clinical implications of HIT policy for nursing

29

Safety and HIT

Unintended consequences of HIT

Future direction for national HIT policy

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

UNIT 5. Policy and Politics in Associations and Interest Groups

66. Interest groups in health care policy and politics

Development of interest groups

Functions and methods of influence

Landscape of contemporary health care interest groups

Assessing value and considering involvement

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

67. Policy issues in nursing associations

What is an association?

Developmental phases

Development of American nursing organizations

Alliances

Credentialing organizations

The work of nursing associations

Policy issues affecting nursing associations

30

Challenges when addressing policy issues

Conclusion

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

68. TAKING ACTION: School nursing at the intersection of health and education

Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model

Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice

Opportunities and challenges with education policy

Healthy and safe schools

Opportunities and challenges with health policy

Key takeaways

Discussion questions

References

69. TAKING ACTION: The alliance of nurses for healthy environments promoting
environmental health

Environmental health nursing in context

References

Online resources

70. Coalitions: A powerful political strategy

Birth and life cycle of coalitions

Building and maintaining a coalition: The primer

Pitfalls and challenges

Political work of coalitions

Evaluating coalition effectiveness

31

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

71. TAKING ACTION: Campaign for action

The future of nursing report

Implementing the future of nursing report

Strengthening nursing education

Conclusion

References

Online resources

72. TAKING ACTION: Why not minot? The battle over North Dakota’s first smoke-free
ordinance

Minot’s story

Laying the groundwork

A legislative champion

Legislative process

The referendum process

“Public health improved”

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

UNIT 6. Policy and Politics in the Community

73. Where policy hits the pavement: Contemporary issues in communities

Community defined

Community engagement

32

Contemporary policy issues affecting communities

Nurses engaging contemporary policy in community

Using health equity and SDOH framework for every population

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

74. An introduction to community activism

Key concepts

Taking action to effect change: Characteristics of community activists and activism

Challenges and opportunities in community activism

Nurses as community activists

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

75. TAKING ACTION: From sewage problems to the statehouse: Serving communities

Sewage changed my life

Seeing is believing

My campaigns

The value of political activity in your community

An opportunity to learn the ropes

Networking

Leadership in the International community

Mentoring other nurses for political advocacy

Recommendations for becoming involved in politics

33

76. TAKING ACTION: Contaminated water and elevated blood lead levels in flint

Nurses call to action in lead case management

Flint’s riches to rags story

State and city fiscal challenges

Drinking from the lakes and the rivers that you are used to

Public health and clinical care linkage

A pediatrician’s observation forces the return to detroit water

Communicating lead health protective behaviors in a community when trust is eroded

Flint forward

Calling all nurses: Power of the practitioner

Discussion questions

References

Online resources

77. Creating a culture of health and working with communities

Health care in the United States

Integrated care

Culture of health

Role of nurses in culture of health

Working with communities to transform health care

Hospital partnerships and transitions of care

Determinants of community health assessment tools and resources

Building a sense of community and civic engagement to address population health in
transforming health care

Advocacy and policy development to strengthen cu