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Based on the following questions, I need you to help me respond to my peers’ 4 posts attached in 150 words each. 2 are attached in PowerPoints and 2 in words.


QUESTION on Windshield Tour .

Take a walk or drive around the geographic area of the population you are interested in. This may be around the hospital or clinic where you work, or in an area you are interested in serving. For instance, when you go into the poorest areas of Chicago, you see:

  • General socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions
    • A disproportionate amount bill boards for alcohol and tobacco products,
    • A dearth of fresh food stores
  • Social and Community Networks
    • Some poorly and some well-maintained neighborhoods
    • Police “blue light” cameras to try to deter gang activity
  • Individual lifestyle factors
    • Few gyms
    • Many pay day loan stores

Hint: Look at the project requirements in Week 02 Assignment – Public Health. It will be helpful to evaluate the area in terms of your topic of interest.


  1. Post a video, or power point or some other easily accessible presentation with pictures of the area you toured (See Resources > Student Handbook > Discussions > How to Access, Record a Video in Discussion for help).
  2. Identify and discuss three risk factors that affect the population in this area. These might be good or disconcerting. Try to identify one in each of the Dahlgren-Whitehead rainbow models.


 Windshield Tour


Sharla Kurtz


Discussion points

Strategies to curb the risk factors affecting the West Garfield Park

Risk factors affecting the population of West Garfield Park

Social inequalities

Lifestyle determinants

Economic factors

Epidemiology and public health

After being posted to serve in a hospital in West Garfield Park, one of the most dangerous neighborhoods in Chicago, I took a drive to explore the area and assess the population lifestyle, economic factors, and the general environmental condition in West Garfield Park. I encountered most people abusing various drugs, particularly alcohol and tobacco products. I also realized that the area had a disproportionate number of billboards for tobacco and alcohol products. The neighborhood is poorly maintained, and most of the population lived in huts and poor garbage deposition, making the area smell filthy thus health hazardous. I identified the main determinants of health that affected the people in West Garfield Park as economic, social, and individual lifestyle inequalities.

Social inequalities

The social condition in which the population in West Garfield Park lives adversely influences their health. Social factors such as poor housing where most of the population live in densely populated shanties put their lives at risk of getting infected with airborne diseases, such as cholera, tuberculosis, Covid-19, and typhoid outbreaks that are easily transferred from one person to another. Poverty is also a significant social determinant as most people cannot meet their basic needs. This has led to an increased rate of crime in the region, lack of sufficient education leading to high dropout cases due to the inability to meet the essential requirement in academic institutions. The social determinants in health account for a considerable extent of the overall burden of infections in the region (Dahlgren & Whitehead, 2006). Consequently, attempts to minimize the social health determinants should need to be viewed as an effective strategy for increasing the average health status of the entire population.

Lifestyle determinants

Individual behaviors, for instance, smoking, exercise and diet, and drinking, greatly influence the population’s health. In West Garfield Park, most individuals’ lives are deteriorated due to excessive consumption of alcohol and tobacco smoking. For instance, tobacco smoking is considered the most significant behavioral risk factor as it increases mortality risks from chronic respiratory ailments, lung cancer, stroke, and heart diseases. Generally, drugs and substance abuse have contributed to increased obesity, high cholesterol level, and high blood pressure-related issues. (Dahlgren & Whitehead, 2006). The most effective strategy to help curb the lifestyle-related risk determinants is to inform the populations on the negative impacts of unhealthy lifestyle practices to enable them to change their ways of living.

Economic factors

Economic inequalities include a lack of employment opportunities leading to poor living conditions for most people in the neighborhood. The local economy impacts job prospects, which affects income, thus determining the type of food and shelter we can manage. All of these factors impact our family’s health and well-being significantly more than the provision of healthcare services, earnings, employment, schooling, and housing have significant effects on our health. Educational attainment directly impacts health outcomes (Dahlgren & Whitehead, 2021). Individuals who are well off both socially and economically have more excellent health than poor individuals.


To conclude, Health determinants in society are influenced by the level of social-economic, which has led to increasing awareness that social inequalities individual lifestyle can affect most health concerns and economic factors. Such risk factors greatly influence the individual’s risk of getting ill-health, practical ability to prevent ailments, and access to better medical care.


Dahlgren, G., & Whitehead, M. (2006). European strategies for tackling social inequities in health: Levelling up Part 2.

Dahlgren, G., & Whitehead, M. (2021). The Dahlgren-Whitehead model of health determinants: 30 years on and still chasing rainbows. Public Health199, 20-24.

Maria Houston



The Northwest neighborhood is a 16-block area bounded by Crescent, Grove, and State streets and East Creek. The neighborhood which goes back to the 1880’s has been stigmatized in recent years by drug trafficking and deterioration. The result has been a renewed sense of pride and optimism, not only in the neighborhood but throughout the city. With the involvement of many residents, parks and community gardens were established. The city has targeted blighted houses for demolition, opening pockets of green space along the streets. The surrounding area is one of sizeable, late-19th century middle-class homes, built for downtown merchants, businesspeople, and their employees.

The death of a seventeen-year-old girl in 2012, who was killed when an intoxicated driver crashed into her at high speed outside her workplace, left the community stunned, horrified, and determined to beat back the scourge of drugs in Rutland and the senseless destruction it was leaving in its wake. Three risk factors that affect the population in this area are substance abuse, poverty and family dysfunction (Purdy, 2016). The Dahlgren-Whitehead rainbow models broaden horizons encouraging people to think beyond health services and the health sector to the wider social determinants of health in the local environment (Dahlgren & Whitehead, 2021). Project Vision is a coalition that includes community members and other major stakeholders in the City of Rutland from the Police Department, to mental health care providers, to educators to work on strengthening and revitalizing communities by creating community leaders, as well as addressing the underlying issues of mental illness, family dysfunction, poverty, and substance abuse that contribute to criminal activity and blight within the neighborhood.

Dahlgren G and Whitehead, M (2021). The Dahlgren-Whitehead model of health determinants: 30 years on and still chasing rainbows, Public Health, V199, 2021, P20-24, ISSN 0033-3506, 

Purdy, Julia (2016) The Mountain Times, Reclaiming Rutlands Northwest Neighborhood Reclaiming Rutland’s Northwest Neighborhood – NeighborWorks of Western Vermont (nwwvt.org)

318 words

Rochester, New Hampshire

Windshield Survey

Lauren Brown – RN BSN

Norwich University – March 2022

Epidemiology and Population Health

Demographics – Overview of the City

Population of 32,492 in 2020 – the largest in city in the “Seacoast” New England area.

Downtown, four small villages, small airport (privately owned), a recreational lake, and one hospital that has 112 acute care beds.

Many elementary schools, large cooperative middle and high school.

Full time police and fire department, emergency medical services provided by the privately owned for-profit hospital.

Focus area: Downtown

High level of homelessness.

High level of substance abuse – specifically IV drug use. Heroin, fentanyl, and methamphetamine have plagued the county and specifically Rochester for years.

Small, family owned restaurants that offer relatively unhealthy “bar food” most of which serve alcohol.

No gyms downtown – much of the affordable housing/state housing for the city is there.

Easily accessible area, walking distance to the hospital. No urgent care or clinic nearby.

Socio-economic, cultural, and environmental concerns

Poverty rate: 10.4% in 2019 – vs. the average State of New Hampshire 7.3%

Employment: 15,611/30,955 (2019)

Home ownership is only 67.3% and the city has a high rental property rate.

White (non-hispanic) citizens 92.3% – not a culturally diverse city whatsoever.

Many buildings are not maintained, there is a lot of trash and breakdown throughout the community.

Many failed businesses are boarded up. Empty buildings for the homeless to live in and unfortunately steal from.

Social and Community Networks

Church downtown – signs for substance abuse help.

Police and fire department are both downtown and have high visibility.

Zero gyms, community centers, or schools within the downtown.

Substance abuse center is located downtown, which provides many with resources for treatment but also creates an area that lends to criminal activity and insecurities for many.

Individual lifestyle factors

Many individuals are overweight, not a fit community. Very few gyms or recreational areas.

Majority of restaurants are fast food/drive through/bar food. There are five major groceries stores and a local market, so fresh food is an option – but fresh food is expensive.

Substance abuse levels are high throughout the city. There is a relatively high level of drug sales in this community, which lends to individuals who use drugs to stay local and live together or on the street.

Treatment for substance abuse is available yet highly limited.


Rochester, New Hampshire is an average city on the larger size in the state. It does have higher rate of poverty and unemployment than other areas of comparable size. The hardest socio-economic struggle is substance abuse and homelessness, much of which are related to one another.

Healthcare lacks because there is no urgent care or clinic, just a hospital with an emergency department which is very small for the size of the community. Further, substance abuse and mental health treatment are incredibly limited and unavailable to most, unless it is an acute basis at the hospital (i.e. overdose or suicidal ideations).

I look forward to diving into this community that I have lived in for eight years. I have worked at the hospital within the city, but work nearby in the emergency department in a nearby city. I do still see many patients from Rochester, as it is only a ten minute drive.


Community Action Partnership of Strafford County. 2022. Accessed at: https://straffordcap.org

Data USA. 2019. Accessed at: https://datausa.io/profile/geo/rochester-nh/

Wai’anae Windshield Tour

Louann Robinson

Department of Nursing, Norwich University

NR514: Epidemiology and Population Health

Professor Carolyn Brown

March 9, 2022

General socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions

The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity is 73.4% among NHPI (Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders), which is 20% greater than non-Hispanic Whites

NHPI also suffer a stroke an average of 10 years younger than non-Hispanic Whites, in part due to poorer hypertension management

Waianae population is 39.7% Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander

77% of households have internet services

11% college educated

Social and Community Networks

Abundance of fast-food chains, no Walmart, Costco or Target

2 Small locally owned grocery stores with limited purchase options

Food Dessert

Most care provided at Waianae Coast Comprehensive Health Center (WCCHC) focused on Medicare and Medicaid patient population

High rate of homelessness

High rate of methamphetamines

High rate of Diabetes/Obesity

Individual Lifestyle Factors

Organized homeless encampment with approximately 278 people, 43 are reported to be children

19 Acres in size, located on state property

No running water/sewage available on site (Cesspools)


Hawaii Department of Health. (2020, July 1). Data & Statistics. Https://Health.Hawaii.Gov/Tb/Data-Statistics/#caserate_Hi. https://health.hawaii.gov/tb/data-statistics/#caserate_Hi

Horton, H. (2015, May 5). Why Paradise is the fattest place on Earth. Mirror.Co.Uk. Retrieved March 8, 2022, from https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/ampp3d/paradise-fattest-place-earth-5640511

Economic and Social Research Council. (2022). The Dahlgren-Whitehead rainbow – Economic and Social Research Council. Esrc.Ukri.Org. Retrieved March 8, 2022, from https://esrc.ukri.org/about-us/50-years-of-esrc/50-achievements/the-dahlgren-whitehead-rainbow/

Kaholokula, J. K., Ing, C. T., Look, M. A., Delafield, R., & Sinclair, K. (2018b). Culturally responsive approaches to health promotion for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. Annals of Human Biology, 45(3), 249–263. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2018.1465593

US Census Bureau. (2020, October 16). About the 2020 Census. The United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/2020-census/about.html

Dahlgren-Whitehead Rainbow

Connections between level of health, socio-economic status and effects on a person’s health