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Assignment 2 : Data analysis design with secondary data. Submit assignment 2 no later than 3/25 Friday

(1)  Variables can be used in your data analysis:

Age, City, Zip Code, Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Patient Language, Diagnosis Description, Discharge Disposition, Hospital Name, Insurance, Deceased, Emergency Room, LOS, Year. The variable “year” are required in all data analysis. 

(2) From your first assignment, after understanding the characteristics and background of diabetic in Bronx NY. You should already have the ideas of the following questions: 

(a) What kind of significant issues (or problems) facing the diabetics in Bronx?

(b) What kind of related research questions you want to research on?

(c) From the data analysis, what kind of related answers you expect to find out? (accept or reject results)

(3) The 2nd assignment is using the above variables listed at (1): 

(a) To construct at least 2 research questions (significant issues or problems) facing the diabetics in Bronx.

(b)  In each of the research question, you have to pick at least 2 variables from (1) (it can be related to the issues you mentioned in your first assignment).

(c) The variable “Year” is required in all analysis. 

(4) You can start from constructing a hypothesis to guide your data analysis design.

(a) Elaborate why you pick these 2 research questions?

(b) why you pick these variables for each of the research questions?

(c) What are the relationship between these variables?

(d)  How are you going to use these variables in the data analysis? 

(e) What do you expect from the result of the data analysis?  For example: Different assumptions on different analysis results. Based on the hypothesis (accept or reject) the assumption.

Be creative and elaborate as detail as you can. ** Often using how, how many, how much, why, what, which etc. to guide your thought.

For example: in this data analysis you can focus on the following perspectives: from Descriptive questions, Comparative questions, Relationship-based Question, Predictive questions, or Interpretive questions



Diabetes in Bronx, NY

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Diabetes in Bronx, NY

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by the body’s inability to produce an adequate amount of insulin, a substance that aids in breaking down sugar. As a result, the blood sugar levels in those with the condition become significantly high. Analysis of the prevalence of diabetes in different locations in the U. S has identified Bronx, a locality in New York, as one of the regions with the highest cases of the condition. According to statistical data, over 15% of the people in the region have been diagnosed with diabetes (Tabaei et al., 2020). Further analysis shows that the condition leads to significant health complications such as developing cardiovascular ailments like stroke and heart failure if not managed promptly and effectively. Subsequently, it increases the amount of funds spent on healthcare in the region. The high prevalence of the ailment in the area and its impacts create the need to scrutinize the region to determine the factors contributing to the increased incidence of diabetes in the region.

Research Questions

The prevalence of diabetes in Bronx and its impact on the region gives rise to three important questions worthy of exploration:

1. Is the feeding habit of the people of Bronx a contributing factor to the prevalence of diabetes in the region?

2. Does the ethnicity of the people of Bronx determine their susceptibility to diabetes?

3. Does the socio-economic status of residents of the area impact their vulnerability to diabetes?

Literature review

Analysis of literary materials that explore the prevalence of diabetes in Bronx highlights several significant factors worthy of exploration. According to Palmer (2013), many of the individuals affected by diabetes in Bronx are members of minority communities, including African Americans and Hispanics. The individuals are predisposed to the condition because of their genetic composition and lifestyle choice. The lifestyle choices predisposing them to the disease include poor feeding habits, lack of exercise, and being overweight.

Cunningham (2019) also explores the issue of increased rates of diabetes in Bronx. The author argues that the social-economic status of individuals in Bronx is a significant factor determining the prevalence of diabetes in the region. The author contends that individuals from poor backgrounds experience are more susceptible to the condition because they lack the finances needed to seek timely medical care for screening and preventative interventions (Cunningham, 2019). Often, the individuals discover that they have the condition when it is in a severe state and cannot be controlled effectively, hence the high mortality rates from the disease in the region.

Palmer (2013) identifies the feeding habits of the people of Bronx as one of the significant factors that contribute to the prevalence of diabetes in the region. According to the author, the locality has many fast-food outlets where the area residents dine. These eateries serve a wide range of cuisines ranging from Mexican to Dominican to Chinese specialties. Ideally, many of the outlets use poor cooking methods in preparing foods such as frying that significantly increase the calories they contain. The foods also contain significant portions of fattening products such as meat that cause individuals in the region to gain excessive weight. Palmer (2013) elucidates that obesity, prevalent in the locality, is a significant factor that predisposes individuals to diabetes. The popularity of the food outlets hinders community members from feeding on healthy home-cooked meals to ensure optimal health.

Research design

The method that will be used to investigate the issue of diabetes in Bronx further to get firsthand information on its causes and factors that contribute to its prevalence, an investigative study will be conducted in the region. The study will aim to highlight the aspects causes of a high prevalence of diabetes in Bronx to collect data that will aid in finding workable solutions to the problem.

The method utilized to compile factual data that will answer the research questions is interviewing individuals who will provide the necessary information. These people include the resident of the region who have been diagnosed with diabetes, healthcare providers in the area who interact with patients and have comprehensive information about them, and public health officers who can access the record of diabetic patients in the region. A total of sixty participants will be selected using the convenience sampling method. The method of selecting participants is the most appropriate in this context because it will aid in choosing those who will provide extensive information that will answer the research questions (Rosen, 2019). At the same time, selecting the participants is another significant aspect that will be considering the diversity present in the population by selecting respondents from different ethnicities, ages, and sexes. Subsequently, the consent of the participants will be sorted before they are included in the study to adhere to the precepts of undertaking ethical research.

The process used to compile factual data is semi-structured interviews which will take place through face-to-face encounters with the respondents via telephone conversations. The participants will be asked open-ended questions to provide information that answers the research questions. The reason for using open-ended questions in the inquiries is that the question will aid in compiling comprehensive information (Rosen, 2019). The question allows the participants to give detailed information on the issue. Subsequently, it is possible to seek clarification on any content not explained adequately. Before the interview, questionnaires will be created that contain the questions that the participants will be asked. The discussions will also be recorded so that the information can be analyzed effectively.

The factual information compiled from the investigation will be analyzed to deduce significant trends that answer the research questions. For example, the data will help determine trends such as the populations in the region that have the highest number of patients with diabetes. In addition, it will also highlight the eating habits of those who have the condition. Further, it will also reveal the socio-economic status of the patients with the disease (Palmer, 2013). The information will be fundamental in making conclusions about the factors contributing to the prevalence of diabetes in the Bronx. Moreover, the findings will provide the content needed to make recommendations about the strategies that can reduce the number of individuals with the condition in the region.


Diabetes is one of the chronic conditions affecting many individuals in the U. S. It is an ailment that requires constant medical attention and can lead to fatalities if not managed appropriately. Investigations show that some regions like Bronx have a high prevalence of the condition compared to other areas. The need to deduce why the people in the region are predisposed to the disease gives rise to three important research questions. A literature review provides comprehensive information about the prevalence of diabetes in the locality. In addition, an investigative study is undertaken to deduce significant aspects about the prevalence of the condition in the region. With the use of interviews as the primary data collection method, adequate information will be compiled from the group of participants to ensure that will help in determining the aspects that contribute to the increased incidences of diabetes in the region to find adequate solutions that reduce the number of individuals with the condition.


 Cunningham, J., H. (2019, January 10). Five of the Worst Neighborhoods for Diabetes Are in the Bronx. New York Daily News. https://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/bronx/bronx-diabetes-central-article-1.1369789

Palmer, J. (2013, August 21). Diabetes in the Bronx: Epicenter of an Epidemic. The Riverdale Press. https://riverdalepress.com/stories/Diabetes-in-the-Bronx-epicenter-of-an-epidemic,52855?page=1

Rosen, A. M. (2019). Effective research methods for any project. The teaching company, Chantilly, VA, USA.

Tabaei, B. P., Howland, R. E., Gonzalez, J. S., Chamany, S., Walker, E. A., Schechter, C. B., & Wu, W. Y. (2020). Impact of a telephonic intervention to improve diabetes control on health care utilization and cost for adults in south Bronx, New York. Diabetes care43(4), 743-750.