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Annotated Bibliography

Baumgarten, A. (2016, October 19). Devils Lake may ditch pit bull ban. Grand Forks Herald.

Retrieved from


This is a current newspaper article discussing that Devils Lake, ND may eliminate the pit bull ban that has been in force since 1987.  The ban is currently being addressed because several city officials believe the codes in force for dangerous animals adequately cover all breeds of dogs.  It goes on to discuss the council’s opinions and the dates when the ordinance will be addressed.  This shows an example of how one city is changing its view.  I will use this as an example of how other cities can remove their ban and replace it with dangerous animal ordinances.  This is a solution for any city currently considering a breed-specific ban.

Encyclopedia Britannica (2014, September). American Staffordshire Terrier. Retrieved from

http://ezproxy.rasmussen.edu/loginurl=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=ers&AN=87998200&site=eds- live

This article provides a brief summary of the history, standards, and temperament of the American Staffordshire Terrier.  It is a statement of facts with no bias shown to the subject matter.  I will use this information to confirm other sources I cite in my research paper.

Frabotta, D. (2005, January). Pit Bulls bear brunt of breed bans. DVM: The Newsmagazine of Veterinary Medicine, 36(1), 1S. Retrieved from


This is an article from Council Bluffs, IA where the city council enacted a breed specific ban.  Exceptions are made for current owners providing they met several criteria detailed by law.  The article goes on to state that the Iowa Veterinary Medical Association opposes this type of legislation but they did not fight the ordinance.  It also refers to similar legislation that was being introduced in the province of Ontario, even though the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association opposes verbiage that any breed is genetically predisposed to being dangerous.  The article goes on to confirm other sources that responsibility of the owner will lead to or prevent many of the unwanted behaviors.

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com.ezproxy.rasmussen.edu/entry/mwcollegiate/pit_bull

This source provides the definition of a Pit Bull and includes an example of a Pit Bull as an American Staffordshire Terrier.  This source provides factual definition without bias.  I will use this source to demonstrate how the term Pit Bull is incorrectly used in many sources as a specific breed; when in truth it is a collection of several loosely related breeds.

Patronek, G., Sacks, J., Delise, K., Cleary, D., & Marder, A. (2013, December 20). Co-occurrence of potentially preventable factors in 256 dog bite–related fatalities in the United States (2000–2009). Retrieved October 23, 2016, from stubbydog.org website: http://stubbydog.org/2013/12/new-study-confirms-preventable-factors-in-dog-bites-breed-not-relevant/

This article is a summary of a research study published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Association.  The authors identified seven factors that contributed to 256 fatalities that occurred in the 2000’s.  They determined that four or more of these factors were present in 80% of the dog bite related deaths.  They also determined that dogs not neutered and dogs used exclusively for protection make up 75% of the animals.  They also state that in over 80% of these incidents the breed could not be identified.

Plfaumer, S. (1998, May). Discover the real American Staffordshire Terrier. Dog World, 83(5), 12. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rasmussen.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=442841&site=eds-live

This article was published in a nationally recognized magazine by an author that has been writing about dogs for over a decade.  The article was written in 1998, but the description of the American Staffordshire Terrier and the interviews with owners of the breed are still relevant.  I will use this article to corroborate the history and temperament of the breed.  It will also be used a source to confirm my personal experiences with this breed.  

Troyer, H. (2016, February). Identifying Pit Bulls. Clinician’s Brief, 14(2), 68. Retrieved from


This article was published this year in the Clinician’s Brief; a diagnostic and treatment magazine for veterinarians published by the North American Veterinarian’s Community; a non-profit group who’s goal is to improve veterinarian treatment for animals.  The article explains that Pit Bull is not a breed, but rather a term used to describe a group of dogs.  In the study, four animal shelters were analyzed to subjectively visually identify the breed of several dogs.  DNA was then completed to determine the actual breed or breeds of the specific dog.  The research shows a lack of consistency and that visual identification was unreliable.  It further states that pedigree analysis cannot predict behavior.

Wright, D. (2015, September 4). City ponders changes to local pit bull laws. Gallipolis Daily Tribune. Retrieved from


This article discusses a resident that adopted a dog and was later informed it was a pit bull.  His argument is that to single out a specific breed or breeds is discrimination.  He references a 2012 law where the state removed pit bulls from the definition of vicious dogs.  This state law did not overturn any community bans on pit bulls.  The final paragraph of this article confirms research referenced in another document.  The American Veterinary Medical Association refers to a 2013 study.  The study was on 256 fatalities that occurred in the United States in the 2000’s.  They found that a valid breed identification was only able to be determined in 17% of the recorded incidents.