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Activity 1: Write the Chapter Introduction ( completed)

Activity Description

Write the Introduction to Chapter Four: The first step in developing chapter four is to create an introduction to chapter four this section should include includes a brief overview of the focus of the study and the research questions.   

Submit the outline which will be a page or less in length. 

Activity 2: Identify and Describe Participants and Location ( completed)

Activity Description

In Chapter Four a description of the participants and setting is provided. A detailed description is provided in order to accurately situate the findings for the study. This discussion should include overall demographics relevant to the study concerning participants and the setting or location. In some cases, a description of the community is necessary. Keep in mind even in theoretical studies there is a population of focus and often a geographic region that should be appropriately described. A paragraph description is required for all participants interviewed. Keep in mind any issues regarding confidentiality. Graphical representations of demographic data are standard in this section.

Provide a description of the participants and location. 1 to 3 pages as needed.

 


Activity 3: Describe Identification of Themes or Significant…

Activity Description

 
Write the Themes or Significant Results: Following the introduction and any demographic information, you assert the significant results or themes in response to the research questions. This is a very clear and structured presentation of the results. Create an outline for presentation of the results to help facilitate the presentation of the evidence. 

For Quantitative Studies The outline should start with the Research Question then followed by Results.
 
For Qualitative Studies the outline should start with the Research Question, followed by the interview question that best corresponds to the research question and then themes related to participants response. Keep in mind that this is an outline so themes should be words or short phrases. Major themes include ideas, concepts, or issues identified by half or more of the participants. Minor themes are those ideas, concepts, or issues identified by two or more but less than half of the participants.
The layout should be:
Research Question
Interview Question
Theme
Theme
Theme
 
For Qualitative Systematic Reviews the outline should begin with Research Questions followed by themes. One important note. The themes in the chapter four cannot simply be headings from chapter two. The themes must be ideas of concepts that provide answers to the research questions as a result of the reviewed studies. Themes should be a word or phrase that describes the idea or concept being presented.
The Layout should be:
 
Research Question
Theme
Theme
Theme

Submit paper for the outline of the presentation of the results to reflect significant results or themes. 2 to 4 pages.

Activity 4: Write the context for each Research Question 

Activity Description

Context for Research Questions:  The first step in presenting the results to the research questions is to remind the reader the context for the questions. When the research question was established, the researcher has a particular aim and scope in mind. In Chapter Two the literature review provided a foundation for what is known about key areas of the study. Using the foundation established in Chapter Two provide an introduction for each research question and include context for the range of possibilities in response to the question using the literature presented in chapter two. From the context are the statistical results or themes. 

Submit paper describing the context for each research question. 1 to 2 pages.  


Activity 5: Presentation of Results Research Question One

Activity Description

Presentation of Results: The presentation of the results for the research questions will follow your description of the participants and location. Present the results in response to specific research question one.  Provide the context for the research questions. Assert predominate results or themes in response to the questions and then present in that order. Note themes generally emerge in more than one way. Clearly show the themes or responses that are predominate. Over half of participant indication is needed to establish a theme (ie: 5 out of 8). As you present the results present a Discussion of each Result that includes a brief interpretation of the results to give the data meaning. Use the doctoral project template to present the results. 

Submit paper for presentation of Results for Research Question One. Paper should be 3 to 8 pages depending on type of study (Qualitative or Theoretical Studies tend to be longer due to the necessary depth and richness of the data)

Activity 6: Presentation of Results Research Questions T

Activity Description

Presentation of Results: The presentation of the results for the research questions will follow your description of the participants and location. Present the results in response to specific research questions two, three and any additional research questions you may have. Provide the context for the research questions. Assert predominate results or themes in response to the questions and then present in that order. Note themes generally emerge in more than one way. Clearly show the themes or responses that are predominate. Over half of participant indication is needed to establish a theme (ie: 5 out of 8). As you present the results present a Discussion of each Result that includes a brief interpretation of the results to give the data meaning. Use the doctoral project template to present the results. 

Submit paper for presentation of Results for Research Questions Two, Three and any additional research questions you may have. Paper should be 3 to 8 pages depending on type of study (Qualitative or Theoretical Studies tend to be longer due to the necessary depth and richness of the data).

 

Activity Outcomes

Juxtapose the findings with scholarly literature relative to the topic.

Activity 7: Complete Chapter 4 with Rubric (sum of Activity 1-6)

Activity Description

Chapter Four is the presentation of results for your Doctoral Project. It gives the reader sufficient information about the participants and location and the significant or predominate results in response to the research questions.

Chapter Four contains the following parts: Introduction with Research Questions, Participant and location description, results to each research questions, and summary.  Please refer to the Doctoral Project Manual and video for additional information on Chapter 4.  

Chapter Four is where the results from this project are articulated in response to the research questions.

An introduction of the chapter is provided which includes a brief overview of the focus of the study. Next, describe the participants and location. The results will follow in response to each research questions. Only the amount of explanation necessary to help the reader understand the basis for the outcomes of the results is included. The discussion of the research and implications is reserved for Chapter Five.  The report of the results must be thorough enough for the reader to make an independent judgment about the research. Summarize the overall findings established from the results presented. 

Use the doctoral project template and submit paper of Chapter Four with the Rubric. 10 to 30 pages depending on methodology and your specific study. 

You will submit your Chapter Four again in Section 8.

Activity Outcomes

Juxtapose the findings with scholarly literature relative to the topic.

 


Activity 8: Description of Study

Activity Description

Chapter Five is where the discussion of the findings from the study are presented.  The discussion should align the findings with the theoretical and conceptual framework that was defined in Chapter Two. 

Begin with a brief overview of the study which includes the purpose of your study. Name the methodology. For example, you might say “The purpose of this quantitative study was to . . . .” 

The introduction to Chapter 5 includes a brief overview of your study, which includes the problem, purpose, research questions and brief description of the methodology.

Submit paper with the introduction of your Chapter 5. 1 page.

 

 

Activity Outcomes

Provide an answer to each research question posed.


Activity 9: Discussion of Findings

Activity Description

Assert and connect the findings to the predominate studies identified in the literature review, indicating how the results relate to this literature and provides explanations for the findings. Although much of this creative emphasis will be revealed in how the results are correlated with the existing literature, the significance of the findings beyond data analysis should be speculated. Provide a discussion regarding changes in the limitations or delimitations of the research if any.

Submit paper with the discussion of the findings for your study.  4-5 pages.

Activity 10: Present Implications for Practice

Activity Description

Write Recommendations for Practice: The candidate will present a discussion of the implications of the study for professional practice and scholarly work in the field of psychology. The candidate should clearly present how the knowledge gained through this study should be applied in the practice of psychology respective to the specific area of focus. This is you should articulate your expertise. Do not be modest or shy in this section you know the topic and let it be known, this include your views on changes in practice.
 
Submit paper describing the Implications for Practice and Recommendations for Research.  2 to 4 pages.  

 

Activity Outcomes

Postulate implications for practice linked to specific findings.

Activity 11: Link Recommendations to Findings and Study

Activity Description

Write Recommendations for Research: The candidate will present suggested future research topics based on the study that could expand this field of knowledge from the study or which will direct scholars to new areas for further exploration. You should where provide clear ideas on the type of study that would best address the identified research needs including suggested methodology. Keep in mind someone may see this information and be inspired to conduct that recommended research.

Submit paper describing the Implications for Practice and Recommendations for Research.  2 to 4 pages.  

Activity 12: Submit Chapter Five with Rubric (sum of Activity 8-11)

Activity Description

Chapter Five is where the discussion of the findings from the study are presented.  The discussion should align the findings with the theoretical framework that was defined in Chapter One.  

Begin with a brief overview of the study which includes the description of the methodology and the purpose of the study.

Next connect the results to the predominate studies identified in the literature review, indicating how the results relate to this literature and provides explanations for the results. Although much of this creative emphasis will be revealed in how the results are correlated with the existing literature, the significance of the results beyond data analysis should be speculated. Provide a discussion regarding changes in the limitations or delimitations of the research.
                                  
You will present a discussion of the implications of the study for professional practice and scholarly work in the field of psychology.  Include are any recommendations for changes in psychological concepts and knowledge, or any recommended changes applied to clinical practice. All implications are to be linked explicitly to specific results from the candidates study. 

Additionally, you will present suggested future research topics based on your study that could expand this field of knowledge or which will direct scholars to new areas for further exploration.

Finally, you will summarize personal insights and any final reflections in conclusion of the study.

Use the Doctoral Project template and submit paper of your Chapter Five with the Rubric. 10 to 15 pages.  

Note:  The Doc Project Assessment Rubrics is located under Resources in your course 

 

Activity Outcomes

Juxtapose the findings with scholarly literature relative to the topic.

Activity Description

An important aspect of the doctoral project process is the review and refinement of your work. The refinement of work is necessary as you become more expert in your study. Having completed Chapters 4 and 5, you will need to go back and review your Chapter One, Two and Three and refine those chapters to support your results and findings. Keep in mind in scholarly writing work can always be improved upon. The expectation is that identify areas to improve upon the writing and highlights changes so that the chair can easily see what is changed.

.

 

Activity Outcomes

Juxtapose the findings with scholarly literature relative to the topic.

Activity 16: Timeline for Doctoral Project to Graduation

Activity Description

Complete Timeline for Doctoral Project Coursework to Graduation. Discuss any issues or concerns regarding the completion of the project. What challenges are you experiencing or anticipate facing? What strategies will you use to overcome them? See sample under Additional Resources

 

Loyola University Chicago Loyola University Chicago

Loyola eCommons Loyola eCommons

Dissertations Theses and Dissertations

2011

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of

Child-Parent Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Child-Parent Interventions for Children and Adolescents with

Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders

Kristen Brendel
Loyola University Chicago

Follow this and additional works at: https://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_diss

Part of the Social Work Commons

Recommended Citation Recommended Citation
Brendel, Kristen, “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Child-Parent
Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders” (2011). Dissertations. 249.
https://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_diss/249

This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses and Dissertations at Loyola eCommons.
It has been accepted for inclusion in Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Loyola eCommons. For more
information, please contact [email protected]

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.
Copyright © 2011 Kristen Brendel

LOYOLA UNIVERSITY CHICAGO

A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF

CHILD-PARENT INTERVENTIONS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH

ANXIETY DISORDERS

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO

THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

PROGRAM IN SOCIAL WORK

BY

KRISTEN ESPOSITO BRENDEL

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

MAY 2011

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Copyright by Kristen Esposito Brendel, 2011
All rights reserved.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to extend my profound appreciation to the many people who have

committed themselves to helping me achieve my academic goals. It is through their

dedication and support that I was able to realize my potential. I am eternally grateful to

you all and hope that I can make you all proud.

I would first like to express my appreciation to my dissertation committee

members who have encouraged and supported me both academically and emotionally

throughout this process. Dr. Alan Levy, my committee chair, has been the most

influential person in my academic career. He has been a dedicated mentor to me since my

first year in the doctoral program. He has served as a voice of support when I needed

encouragement, a voice of breadth and depth when I was thinking too linearly, and a

voice of experience when I was limited by my own knowledge. I am forever indebted to

him for seeing my ability to fit in at the grown up table.

If it were not for Dr. Johnny Kim, this dissertation would not have been possible.

Dr. Kim readily shared his time, talents, and knowledge with me from inception to

completion. Dr. Kim took me on in good faith, despite my lack of experience with meta-

analysis. He acted as my guide, teacher, and editor. He taught me to “fish” and to cast my

line in waters that he was confident I would find success. With Dr. Kim’s support and

guidance, I not only learned how to conduct a meta-analysis but also what it means to be

a truly giving person.

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Dr. James Marley has been a constant support to me throughout my time at

Loyola University Chicago. His kind words of encouragement helped me move through

times of disequilibrium on more than one occasion. His knowledge and support have

been an uplifting part of this process.

I would also like to thank faculty for extending their knowledge, providing me

with support, and helping me grow as a scholar and a social worker. I am extremely

grateful to Dr. Terry Northcutt for admitting me into the PhD program. She was the first

to recognize my potential. She also allowed me to vary my practicum, resulting in

furthering my experiences as a researcher, teacher, and a clinician. I also want to thank

her for her complete understanding of the challenges of balancing family, career, and

school. I am thankful for Dr. Marta Lundy for always being willing to share her time and

talents and as I facilitated my first publication under her guidance. Dr. Michael Kelly

encouraged me in my journey to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis. I am

especially grateful to him for suggesting to me that I contact Dr. Kim for assistance with

my meta-analysis. I would also like to thank Dr. Julia Pryce for her willingness to allow

me to join her in her research endeavors and provide me with support and freedom to

explore the qualitative research process. Finally, I would like to extend my gratitude to

Dr. Michael Borenstein for being a wonderful educator of meta-analyses. He had a way

of breaking down very complicated material in a manner that was easy to understand. I

appreciate his patience and his willingness to share his wealth of knowledge with me.

Next, I would like to thank my cohort and colleagues in the doctoral program at

Loyola. They have been a second family to me and I am so grateful for all of them. I

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would particularly like to extend my appreciation to Jeffrey Bulanda, Kala Melchiori and

Erika Price. I thank them for readily sharing their time and talents.

I would like to express my deepest love and gratitude to my family. First, to my

husband John, who has by far been my biggest support. His understanding, love,

patience, and belief in me have been unrelenting throughout this process. Next, my

daughter Gianna—she has been my little shining light and inspiration. I love them both

with all of my heart and hope to make them proud. My father and mother, Jim and

Ginger, were the first to see my potential from an early age. I appreciate their continued

support throughout my life. Their messages of belief in me have been my foundation and

their encouraging words still echo in my mind. My sister Michelle has been my biggest

cheerleader. She is so special to me, is always on my side, and supports me regardless of

the situation. Her unconditional love enabled me to feel confident enough to pursue

higher education. My brother-in-law Brad has also been encouraging to me. It has been

with his sincerity that I have been able to feel like what I am doing can be helpful to

children and adolescents. My brother Mike and his wife Marg have also added to the

richness of this experience. Their comic relief and pride in me have not gone unnoticed.

Lastly, my friends have been great throughout this process. They stood by me

when I was unable to socialize due to having to research, study, or write. They have also

provided me with many occasions of fun and laughter. I would like to give special

recognition to Dr. Brandy Maynard, my friend and colleague. She has been one of my

biggest supporters both personally and academically. Becoming acquainted with Dr.

Maynard has been one of the most rewarding outcomes of this program. I also would like

to thank Brandy S.K. Wegman for also being available to my family and me when

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needed, and for always knowing when to provide much-needed fun and laughter. I would

also like to acknowledge my other long time friends, Angela Benitez, Dara Dann, Heidi

Marston, Kathy Melton, Rachel Pattermann, Vicky Topping, and Kara Wyckoff for their

enduring friendship, love and support.

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This dissertation is dedicated with love to
my husband John, my daughter Gianna, and my parents, Jim and Ginger.

I also dedicate this dissertation to my clients, both past and present, and all children and

adolescents with anxiety disorders.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. x

LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. xi

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………… 1
Background ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
History of Research on Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders …………………….. 2
Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Purpose of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Research Questions ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Overview of Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis ……………………………………………………………… 6
Limitations of Meta-Analysis …………………………………………………………………………… 8
Significance of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Relevance to Social Work …………………………………………………………………………………. 10
Practice Implications ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………. 13
Definitions………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Family Observations ……………………………………………………………………………………… 25
School and Peer Observation ………………………………………………………………………….. 26
Measures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
Parental Factors …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
Child-Parent Interventions ……………………………………………………………………………… 32

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………. 41
Systematic Review of the Literature …………………………………………………………………… 41
Problem Formulation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
Description of Methods Used in Primary Research ……………………………………………. 43
Criteria for Inclusion and Exclusion of Studies in the Review ……………………………….. 44
Search Strategy for Identification of Relevant Studies ……………………………………….. 46
Conducting and Documenting the Search and Selection Process …………………………. 47
Criteria for Determination of Independent Findings ………………………………………….. 48
Statistical Procedures and Conventions ……………………………………………………………. 49
Treatment of Qualitative Research ………………………………………………………………….. 55

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………….. 56
Meta-Analysis Studies ……………………………………………………………………………………… 56

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Research Designs ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
Participants …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
Setting …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
Treatment Fidelity …………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
Meta-Analysis Results ……………………………………………………………………………………… 70
Waitlist Control …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
Follow-Up ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
Publication Bias ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………………………. 77
Small Effect Size……………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
Delayed Effects …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
Limitations and Implications for Future Research and Practice ……………………………… 80
Follow-Up Data …………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
Small Sample Size ………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
Non-Qualifying Studies …………………………………………………………………………………. 81
Statistical Information ……………………………………………………………………………………. 82
Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status ………………………………………………………………… 83
Age ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
Gender …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
Secondary Diagnoses …………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
Parental Anxiety……………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86

APPENDIX A: CLINICAL TRIALS OF FAMILY INVOLVEMENT FOR
CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH ANXIETY DISORDERS ………………….. 88

APPENDIX B: LITERATURE REVIEWED ………………………………………………………… 98

REFERENCE LIST ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105

VITA ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 116

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Detailed Study Information …………………………………………………………………….. 57

Table 2: Family Demographic Information ……………………………………………………………. 66

Table 3: Diagnoses ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 67

Table 4: Study Settings ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 69

Table 5: Treatment Providers……………………………………………………………………………….. 70

Table 6: Po