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5. Select any of the purple-colored branching vessels inside the rib cage and use the arrow in the content box to find and choose Pulmonary circulation from the hierarchy list. This will highlight the circulatory route that takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. The largest of these vessels, the _______________________________, immediately branches into the right and left _______________________________ as it leaves the heart. 6. Make sure the pericardium is still hidden, and then select the aorta. Use the arrow in the content box to find and choose Great vessels from the hierarchy list. How many great vessels are there and what are their names? Hint: You may have to move the view around and observe it from all angles to see all the great vessels. 7. By definition, _______________________________ carry blood away from the heart and _______________________________ carry blood to the heart. Hint: Select any vein, use the up-arrow in the content box to find and choose Veins from the list, and use the book icon to read the definition. Do the same for arteries.1. Which three arteries branch from the aorta to supply the head? 2. The brachiocephalic trunk branches into the _______________________________ and _______________________________ arteries. 3. Branches of the subclavian arteries travel through foramina in the transverse arches of the cervical vertebrae on their way to the head. What are these branches called?4.What is the unpaired, large vessel that drains blood from the brain? a. Where is this chamber located? b. Dural sinuses are channels between the layers of the dura mater that contain venous blood. They are larger in diameter than regular veins and are often referred to as chambers. 5. Locate one of the superior anastomotic veins (of Trolard). Anastomoses are connected vessels that form a network, providing alternate blood supply routes. These veins lie between which two lobes of the brain? 6. Select any of the veins that parallel the superior anastomotic veins. This group of veins is called ________________________________. The regions of the brain that are drained by these veins are the _______________________________. 7. The superior anastomotic veins and the superior cerebral veins join to form the superficial middle cerebral vein and the _______________________________, which drain into the _______________________________. 8. Posteriorly, the transverse sinuses and the superior sagittal sinus meet at the _______________________________, which drains into the _______________________________, which in turn drains into the _______________________________. 9. The sigmoid sinuses are located near the posterior lobes of the _______________________________. 10. Rotate the view to observe the anterior structures. Locate the large, paired cavernous sinuses. They receive blood from the ophthalmic region. Blood from the cavernous sinuses travels through two petrosal sinuses and the sigmoid sinus to drain into the _______________________________. In the system tray on the left side of the screen, select and deselect the skeletal system icon to add and remove the skeletal system structures from the view and observe where the internal jugular veins leave the skull and enter the neck.1. Locate the common carotid arteries. Branches of these arteries, the _______________________________, travel through the neck and enter the skull. 2. Rotate the view to observe the network of arteries on the inferior side of the brain. The circle formed by anastomosing arteries at the base of the brain is the _______________________________. 3. The vertebral arteries join to form the _______________________________, which sends off several small branches, called _______________________________, to the pons. The anterior inferior cerebellar arteries, which branch from the _______________________________, and the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, which branch from the_______________________________, supply the _______________________________. 4. Each internal carotid artery ends by forming several branches, the largest of which is the _______________________________. Other branches travel inferior to the frontal lobes to supply the eyes. These are the _______________________________.5. The anterior portion of the circle of Willis is formed by the _______________________________, which travels between the right and left frontal lobes. These paired arteries are joined at the anterior-most part of the circle of Willis by the _______________________________. Locate the posterior communicating artery, which joins the posterior cerebral artery to the middle cerebral artery. 6. Rotate the view to observe the many collateral routes formed by the circle of Willis. a. What prominent landmark of the nervous system is enclosed by the circle of Willis? b. Which endocrine system landmark is enclosed by the circle of Willis? 7. Rotate the view to observe the superior surface of the brain. Branches from the circle of Willis supply the entire brain. Two pairs of large arteries, the _______________________________ and _______________________________ arteries, travel in the longitudinal fissure between the two hemispheres. From these two pairs of arteries, several sets of arteries travel laterally across the brain to join the middle _____________________________. Their branches supply the cerebrum.1. Locate the two large internal jugular veins that leave the skull and travel down the neck. Each one exits the skull through a space between the temporal and occipital bones called the ________________________________. 2. External to the skull, the posterior portion of the scalp is drained by the paired _______________________________. 3. The sides of the scalp are drained by the _______________________________, which pass over the temporal bones in front of the ears, and the _______________________________, which pass behind the ears. These veins join to form the retromandibular vein. 4. The occipital veins and branches of the retromandibular vein join to travel down the outside of the neck as the _______________________________.5. The external jugular veins drain into the _______________________________ and the internal jugular veins drain into the _________________________________________________. 6. Locate the veins that travel with the vertebral arteries through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae. These are the _______________________________.1. Select any of the purple-colored branching vessels, use the arrow in the content box to find and choose Pulmonary circulation from the list, and use the book icon to read the definition. Pulmonary circulation travels between the _______________________________ and the _______________________________. 2. Rotate the view to observe the great vessel that leaves the heart and splits into two branches, one for each lung. Before it branches, this vessel is called the _______________________________, and its branches are called _______________________________.3. While viewing the posterior side of the heart, select the large surface of the lower heart to highlight the sternocostal surface. Use the Hide button in the content box to hide this surface and rotate the view to observe the opening to the pulmonary trunk. a. Which heart chamber pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk? b. Which valve controls backflow of blood from the pulmonary trunk into the heart? 4. Once inside the lungs, these arteries split into increasingly smaller branches that eventually reach the pulmonary capillary beds, which wrap around the alveoli of the lungs. This is the site of _______________________________. 5. The pulmonary arteries are unique because they are the only arteries that carry _______________________________. Therefore, they are colored purple, not red, in the view. 6. Why are the pulmonary veins colored a dark shade of purple, instead of blue like the superior vena cava, in this view? 7. Select the left lung and use the Hide button in the content box to hide it. If you want to hide the trachea and bronchi as well, deselect the respiratory system icon in the system tray on the left side of the screen to remove these structures from the view. Rotate the view to observe it from the back and locate the four veins, two on each side, that return blood from the lungs to the heart. a. What are the upper veins called? b. What are the lower veins called? c. Which heart chamber collects blood from all four of these veins? Biology Science Anatomy NURS 200